Leadership Style and Occupational, Safety and Health of Police Officers in Nairobi City County, Kenya
The purpose of this study was to determine how leadership style affects the occupational, safety and health of Police Officers in Nairobi City County, Kenya. In this study, data was collected from Police Officers which were the main study population. The study chose Nairobi City County where all the police stations were covered. The target population was 4,000 Police Officers which included commanding officers to have a sample size of 200. They were sampled through simple random sampling. First a 10 percent of all 33 police stations in Nairobi and the Police Officers there in were initially used for a pilot study. In the police stations which had remained, a sample of 5 percent of Police Officers and a commanding officer in each station were studied. Data from the respondents were collected by the use of questionnaires. The study was carried out on Police Officers who were on duty but after permission had been sought from relevant authorities. It was based on a simple random sampling research method where each officer had a chance of being chosen. Every officer commanding a police station was chosen. Each respondent was explained the importance of the study, that it was done freely with their willingness, at a convenient location, the questionnaires were to be collected and kept with confidence. Each respondent was requested to confirm in writing, affirmative action or signing a document without indicating a name that the study was done with their approval. Through these modes of data collection, every population was well represented as a sample. The study used Cronbach Alpha Coefficient to test on reliability of instruments. The validity of research instruments was also tested. The computer software SPSS version 20 was used to analyze the collected data. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used in data analysis. Data was then presented in the form of figures, tables and charts. Through factor analysis, all the eight statements of the variable under study were retained for they were above 0.5. The response rate of the responds was 75.5% which is acceptable. It was found out that 36.4% of the Police Officers had worked in the National Police Service for 6 to 10 years and majority of them, 82.1% were married. The four leadership styles found to be affecting the occupational, safety and health of Police Officers in Nairobi City County, Kenya were; transformational, autocratic, democratic and charismatic leadership styles. It was found out that 84.5% of the leaders of Police Officers were visionary, 60.2% valued the constitution and see it as a protector and supporter of their occupational safety and health. In fact, 85.5% and 61.6% see Kenya Human Rights and OSHA respectively as valuable Acts.
Key Words: Leadership Style, Occupational, Safety, Health, Police
Barrett, B. (2016). Compensation for work related injury or disease: Do injured workers starve to death? E-Journal of International and Comparative Labor Studies, 5(3), September/October, ADAPT University Press. Retrieved on November 29th 2017 from www.ejcls.adapt.it/it/index.php/ejcls.adapt/article/viewfile/165/558
Dang, C., Denis, C., Gahide, S., Chariot, P., & Lefèvre, T. (2016). Violence at work: forensic medical examination of police officers assaulted while on duty: comparisons with other groups of workers in two centres of the Paris area, 2010–2012. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 89(5).
Derek, T., Hall, L., & Taylor, S. (2008). Human resource management (7th Ed.) Prentice Hall, Financial Times, Harlow, England: Pearson Educational Ltd.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics. Sage.
Flynn, M.A., Eggerth, D.E., & Jacobson, C.J. (2015). Undocumented status as a social determinant of occupational safety and health: The workers’ perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 58(11). Retrieved on October 12th 2018 from https://doi:10.1002/ajim.22531
Fox, J.A., & DeLateur, M.J. (2014). Mass shootings in America: Moving beyond Newtown. Homecide Studies, 18(1). Retrieved on April 5th 2018 from, www.sagepub.com/journalspermissions.nav https://doi:10.1177/1088767913510297
Friend, M. A., & Kohn, J. P. (2018). Fundamentals of occupational safety and health (7th Edition). Rowman & Littlefield.
Goleman, D. (2000). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review, March/April.
Green, H. (2014). Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Nurse Researcher, 21(6).
He, A., Xu, S., & Fu, G. (2012). Study on the basic problems of safety culture. International Symposium on Safety Science and Engineering in China (ISSSE-2012). Procedia Engineering, 43.
Hoffman, E.E., Mair, T.T.M., Hunter, B.A., Prince, D.M., & Tebes, J.K. (2018). Neighborhood sexual violence moderates women’s perceived safety in urban neighborhoods. J. Community Psychol, 46.
Hope, K.R. (2015). In pursuit of democratic policing: An analytical review and assessment of police reforms in Kenya. International Journal of Police Service and Management, 17(2). Retrieved on July 9th 2018 from https://doi:10.1177/1461355715580915
Jonathan-Zamir, T., & Weisburd, D. (2013). The effects of aecurity threats on antecedents of police legitimacy: Findings from a quasi-experiment in Israel. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 50(1).
Kim, Y., Park, J., & Park, M. (2016). Creating a culture of prevention in occupational safety and health practice. Safety and Health at Work, 7(2).
Krasikova, D.V., Green, S.G., & LeBreton, J.M. (2013). Destructive leadership: A theoretical review, integration, and future research agenda. Journal of Management, Volume 39, No. 5. Retrieved on 30th July 2018 from https://DOI:10.1177/0149206312471388
McCleary-Sills, J., Namy, S., Nyoni, J., Rweyemamu, D., Salvatory, A., & Steven, E. (2013). Help-Seeking pathwaysand barriers for survivors of gender-based violence in Tanzania: Results from a study in Dar es Salaam, Mbeya, and Iringa Regions. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: EngenderHealth/Champion.
Moreto, W.D. (2016). Occupational stress among law enforcement rangers: Insights from Uganda. Oryx. 50(4). Fauna and Flora International.
Muthondeki, D., Sirera, M.A., & Mwenje, M. (2014). Psychosocial challenges faced by retired police officers: A case of retired administration police officers in Kenya. ISOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS). 19(8)1. August. Retrieved on November 29th 2017 from www.ku.ac.ke/schools/humanities/images/stories/2016/1019815563.pdf
Nairobi County Government (2018). Nairobi. Retrieved on July 9th 2018 from www.nairobi.go.ke/home/history/
Nanjundeswaraswamy, T. S., & Swamy, D. R. (2014). Leadership styles. Advances in Management, 7(2), 57.
National Police Service (2019a). Press statement on the Dusit Hotel attack. Retrieved on February 1st 2019 from www.nationalpolice.go.ke/2015-09-08-17-56-33/news/270-press-statement-on-the-dusit-hotel-attack.html
National Police Service (2019b). Annual crime report 2016. Retrieved on February 1st 2019 from www.nationalpolice.go.ke/crime-statistics.html
National Police Service (2019c). Crime situation report 2015. Retrieved on February 1st 2019 from www.nationalpolice.go.ke/crime-statistics.html
National Police Service (2019d). Annual crime report 2014. Retrieved on February 1st 2019 from www.national.police.go.ke/crime-statistics.html
National Police Service (2019e). Annual crime report for the year 2011. Retrieved on February 1st 2019 from www.national.police.go.ke/crime-statistics.html
National Police Service Act No. 11A of 2011 (Revised edition, 2016). Laws of Kenya, Nairobi: Published by National Council of Law Reporting.
Nderi, F.W., & Kirai, M. (2017). Influence of work environment on employee performance in the security sector in Kenya: A case of Kenya Police Service Nairobi city county. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(4). Retrieved on June 7th 2018 from www.strategicjournals.com
Occupational Safety & Health Act No. 15 of 2007 (Revised Edition 2010). Laws of Kenya, Nairobi: Published by National Council of Law Reporting.
Oweke, J.A., Muola, J., & Ngumi, O. (2014). Causes of occupational stress In relation to level of Occupational Stress among Police Constables in Kisumu County, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 19(11), Ver. III. Retrieved on May 25th 2018 from www.IOSrjournals.org
Shi, G., & Shiichiro, I. (2012). Study on the strategies for developing a safety culture in industrial organizations. International symposium on safety science and engineering in China, (ISSSE-2012). Procedia Engineering, 43.
Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using multivariate statistics, Volume 5. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Thanasegaran, G. (2009). Reliability and Validity Issues in Research. Integration & Dissemination, 4.
Thomson, J. (1997). Employee health programmes: A model designed for a local company, Journal of Workplace Learning, 9(2).
Underhill, E., (2001). Extending knowledge on occupational health and safety and labor hire employment: A literature review and analysis of Victorian worker’s compensation claims. A Report Prepared for Work Safe Victoria.
Violanti, J. M., Andrew, M. E., Mnatsakanova, A., Hartley, T. A., Fekedulegn, D., & Burchfiel, C. M. (2016). Correlates of hopelessness in the high suicide risk police occupation. Police Practice and Research, 17(5). Retrieved on October 13th 2018 from https://doi:10.1080/15614263.2015.1015125
Were, S.M., Gakure, R.W., Kiraithe, E.K., & Waititu, A.G. (2012). Influence of motivation on performance in the public security sector with a focus to the police force in Nairobi, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Volume 3, No. 23, Dec. Retrieved on April 5, 2018 from www.ijbssnet.com