Assessing the Contribution of Women-Led NGOs to Gender Equality and Empowerment in Kenya: Challenges, Successes, and Future Prospects


  • Dorothy Medza Tsuma Management University of Africa (MUA)



The critical role of women-led Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in advancing gender equality and empowerment in Kenya is undeniable, as they address issues like gender-based violence, educational disparities, and economic inequalities. This study reviewed the contributions of these NGOs in Kenya, focusing on their challenges, successes, and future prospects. It employed a systematic methodology, combining a positivist research philosophy with a desktop review design, to analyze existing literature and draw conclusions. The findings revealed that women-led NGOs have been instrumental in creating safe spaces for women, advocating for legal reforms, and implementing community-based programs for economic and social empowerment. These efforts have led to notable improvements in Kenyan women's lives, contributing to a gradual shift towards gender equality. However, the study also highlights significant challenges faced by these NGOs, including limited financial and human resources, societal and cultural barriers, and a fluctuating political and policy environment. Studies reviewed indicated the effectiveness of women-led Community-Based Rice Seed Entrepreneurship Models (CBRSEM) in enhancing women's skills and livelihoods, but also point out operational challenges such as high production costs and the need for agricultural tools. The study found that women's self-mobilization and movements in Kenya have shown to be vital in economic empowerment, evolving from informal associations to significant entities in agribusiness and NGOs. Moreover, educational programs have been effective in shaping adolescents' attitudes towards gender equality, suggesting the integration of gender studies in early education curricula. The study concludes that women-led NGOs in Kenya play a pivotal role in promoting gender equality, yet face persistent struggles with resource limitations and societal resistance. Their future success depends on sustainable funding, robust networks and collaborations, technological leverage, and societal mindset shifts towards gender-sensitive attitudes. Therefore, recommendations include increasing financial support, building robust networks, working towards changing societal norms, utilizing technology and social media, strengthening internal capacity, and engaging in policy advocacy.

Keywords: Gender Equality, Women-led NGOs, Empowerment, Community-based Programs, Kenya

Author Biography

Dorothy Medza Tsuma, Management University of Africa (MUA)



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How to Cite

Tsuma, D. M. “Assessing the Contribution of Women-Led NGOs to Gender Equality and Empowerment in Kenya: Challenges, Successes, and Future Prospects”. Journal of Sociology, Psychology & Religious Studies, vol. 5, no. 2, Dec. 2023, pp. 143-59, doi:10.53819/81018102t4238.