Effect of Agricultural Extension Services and Development on Productivity among Small Scale Farmers in India

  • Vikram R. Rushdie Indian Institute of Technology Madras-India
  • Chetan M. Singh Indian Institute of Technology Madras-India
  • Amrita Desai Divakaruni (PhD) Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India


Since the history of mankind, agriculture evolved round the basic food needs of man and developed principles and practices in crop production including field management. With changing situation, technological development have shifted the traditional agriculture from mere crop production to mixed farming involving allied activities like animal husbandry, sericulture, pisciculture etc. Need for technological development in agriculture. Extension services have become the gold standard for agricultural development programs to spur farm productivity and enhance farmers’ livelihood. Scholars from distinct strands of research have contested the virtues of these programs as systematic reviews failed to disentangle the different causal paths. Despite a wide range of reform initiatives in agricultural extension in India in the past decades, the coverage of, access to, and quality of information provided to marginalized and poor farmers is uneven. While the call for demand-driven agricultural extension has existed in India for several decades now, new modes of reaching out to farmers could have significant impact in India, as they might better reflect the local information needs of farmers. This study therefore sought to find out through literature review the effect of agricultural extension services and development on productivity among small scale farmers in India. Using information provision and access as the basis for analysis, the paper reviewed some of the major agricultural extension programs in India by considering their ability to provide information and facilitate information sharing and use in small scale farming communities in India. The study established that access to information from any source increased with larger farm size in India. Most farmers sought information on seed for cultivation, followed by veterminary care in animal husbandry, and then management and marketing in fisheries.

Keywords: Extension services, agricultural development, productivity, small scale farmers


Alvi, M., Barooah, P., Gupta, S., & Saini, S. (2021). Women's access to agriculture extension amidst COVID-19: Insights from Gujarat, India and Dang, Nepal. Agricultural Systems, 188, 103035.

Cole, R. (2022). Prospects and limitations of ‘Responsible Agricultural Investment’for governing transboundary agri‐food systems in Mekong Southeast Asia: Implications for upland maize in the Lao‐Vietnamese borderlands. Environmental Policy and Governance, 32(4), 362-373.

Fabregas, R., Kremer, M., & Schilbach, F. (2019). Realizing the potential of digital development: The case of agricultural advice. Science, 366(6471), eaay3038.

Farid, M., Fayyaz, A., Ahmed, E., Arooj, M., Ali, S., Sarfraz, W., ... & Rasheed, Z. (2022). Increase in Food Scarcity, Agricultural Challenges, and Their Management: Pakistan Perspectives. In Managing Plant Production Under Changing Environment (pp. 437-458). Springer, Singapore.

Fathonah, F. I., & Mashilal, M. (2021). Rice Production Analysis in Reflecting Rice Self-sufficiency in Indonesia. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 316, p. 02041). EDP Sciences.

Jarial, S. (2022). Internet of Things application in Indian agriculture, challenges and effect on the extension advisory services–a review. Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies.

Kamal, A. B., Sheikh, M. K., Azhar, B., Munir, M., Baig, M. B., & Reed, M. R. (2022). Role of Agriculture Extension in Ensuring Food Security in the Context of Climate Change: State of the Art and Prospects for Reforms in Pakistan. Food Security and Climate-Smart Food Systems, 189-218.

Mitala, Y. (2022). The role of mobile phone short message service (SMS) in the provision of agricultural extension services: the case of Momulimisa in Lira district (Doctoral dissertation, Makerere University).

Netter, L., Luedeling, E., & Whitney, C. (2022). Agroforestry and reforestation with the Gold Standard-Decision Analysis of a voluntary carbon offset label. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 27(2), 1-26.

Nikam, V., Ashok, A., & Pal, S. (2022). Farmers' information needs, access and its impact: Evidence from different cotton producing regions in the Maharashtra state of India. Agricultural Systems, 196, 103317.

Ogundari, K. (2022). A meta-analysis of the impact of agricultural extension services. China Agricultural Economic Review.

Rivera, W. M. (2022). India's Agricultural Extension Development and the Move Toward Top-Level Management Training. In Agricultural Extension Worldwide (pp. 225-250). Routledge.

Zabel, F., Delzeit, R., Schneider, J. M., Seppelt, R., Mauser, W., & Václavík, T. (2019). Global impacts of future cropland expansion and intensification on agricultural markets and biodiversity. Nature communications, 10(1), 1-10.

How to Cite
Rushdie, V. R., Singh , C. M., & Divakaruni, A. D. (2022). Effect of Agricultural Extension Services and Development on Productivity among Small Scale Farmers in India. Journal of Agriculture, 6(2), 11 - 20. https://doi.org/10.53819/81018102t4109