Contamination from Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and other Pesticides in Agricultural Soils of Buuri, Imenti South and Imenti North Sub counties, Meru County Agroecosystem in Kenya

Authors

  • Marete M. G. The Technical University of Kenya
  • Lalah J. O. The Technical University of Kenya
  • Mputhia J. The Technical University of Kenya
  • Wekesa V. W. The Technical University of Kenya

Abstract

The presence and distribution of organochlorine (OCPs) and the residues of other pesticides in Buuri, Imenti South and Imenti North Sub Counties, Meru County agroecosystem in Kenya was examined in the current research. Pesticide residue analysis was done with gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy. Twenty soil samples sampled randomly from each sub county were collected for the multi residue and Quecher's method analysis of OCP sand other pesticides such as organophospahates, carbamates, fungicides, pyrethroids and neonicotinoids respectively. Seventeen OCP residues with notable concentrations were observed from the study area. Alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, delta-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT, endosulfan II, p,p'-DDD, Endrin aldehyde, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan sulfate, heptachlor epoxide and methoxychlor were obtained at concentrations ranging from BDL-85.83±1.98, with methoxychlor giving the highest mean concentration. Endrin was not detected. Other pesticides detected included carbendazin (conc range) metalaxyl (range conc) and chlorpyrifos (range of conc). All organochlorine pesticides detected from the three sub counties in Meru County are in the list of priority pollutants of US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Results indicate that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other pesticides exist in agricultural soils in Meru and recent illegal use in sampled area for some of the OCPs should and be monitored and regulated. Increased soil monitoring is recommended to detect persistency and changes in target environment. Some of these OCPs and other pesticides had been reported to be in use by farmers in the three sub-counties, although presence of other OCPs which have been banned could be due to environmental cycling and persistence.

Key Words: Organochlorine, Pesticides, Contamination, Agricultural soils, Agroecosystem

Author Biographies

Marete M. G., The Technical University of Kenya

PhD Candidate

Lalah J. O., The Technical University of Kenya

Department of Geoscience and the Environment

Mputhia J., The Technical University of Kenya

Department of Chemical Science and Technology

Wekesa V. W., The Technical University of Kenya

Department of Technical and Applied Biology

References

N. Ramankutty, Z. Mehrabi, K. Waha et al., (2018) “Trends in global agricultural land use: implications for environmental health and food security,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 789–815, 2018.

W. Spohn and E. Morawska, (2018) Moving Europeans in the globalizing world: contemporary migrations in a historical-comparative perspective (1955–1994 v. 1870–1914),” in Global History and Migrations, pp. 23–61, Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 2018

UNGA, Transforming Our World: 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, A/RES/70/1, UNGA, New York, NY, USA, 2015.

H. K. Gill and H. Garg, (2018) “Pesticides: environmental impacts and management strategies,” in Pesticides-Toxic Aspects, M. L. Larramendy and S. Soloneski, Eds., In Tech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2014, https://www.intechopen.com/books/pesticides-toxic-aspects/ pesticides- environmental-impacts-and-management-strategies.

S. Kane and J. F. Shogren, (2000) “Linking adaptation and mitigation in climate change policy,” Climatic Change, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 75–102, 2000.

K. Were, A. M. Gelaw, and B. R. Singh, (2011) “Smart strategies for enhanced agricultural resilience and food security under a changing climate in sub-Saharan Africa,” in Climate Change and Multi-Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture, R. Lal, D. Kraybill, D. Hansen et al., Eds., pp. 431–453, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2016.

Lemaire G Terouanne B Mauvais P Michels and Rahmania R (2004). Effect of organochlorine pesticides on the human androgen reception activation. In vitro. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 196:235-246.

Aucha J. K, Wandiga S. O, Abong’o D. A, Madadi V. O, Osoro E. M (2017). Organochlorine Pesticides residue levels in air and soil from Nairobi and Mount Kenya regions, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) Volume 10, Issue 7 Ver. II (July. 2017), PP 05-11.

Osoro E. M, Wandiga S. O, Abongo D. A, Madadi V. O and Macharia J. W (2016). Organochlorine Pesticides residues in water and sediment from Rusinga Island, Lake Victoria, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) ,Volume 9, Issue 9 Ver. II. e-ISSN: 2278-5736

Ministry of Tourism, Trade and Industry, Government of Kenya, (October 1999). Report on Republic of Kenya Fertilizer and Pesticides Sub-Sector Profile and Opportunities for Private Investment Page 12-13.

Patrick O. A and Rosemary A, A paper for the Future Agricultures Consortium workshop, Institute of Development Studies, University of Nairobi 20-22 March 2006

P. O. Fosu, A. Donkor, C. Ziwu et al., (2017) “Surveillance of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Accra Metropolis markets, Ghana, 2010–2012: a case study in sub-Saharan Africa,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 24, no. 20, pp. 17187–17205, 2017.

L. Wu, X. Zhou, D. Zhao et al., (2017) “Seasonal variation and exposure risk assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region of China during 2010– 2014,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 58, pp. 1–9, 2017.

S. Akomea-Frempong, I. W. Ofosu, E. G. J. Owusu-Ansah, and G. Darko, (2017) “Health risks due to consumption of pesticides in ready-to-eat vegetables (salads) in Kumasi, Ghana,” International Journal of Food Contamination, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 13, 2017.

S. Rahmawati, L. Chandra, K. Minoru, and K. Oginawati, (2017) “Risk analysis on organochlorine pesticides residue in potato and carrot from conventional and organic farms in Citarumwatershed area, West Java Province, Indonesia,” JurnalSains&TeknologiLingkungan, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–15, 2017.

O. Akoto, H. Andoh, G. Darko, K. Eshun, and P. Osei-Fosu, (2013) “Health risk assessment of pesticides residue in maize and cowpea from Ejura, Ghana,” Chemosphere, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 2013.

M. Chowdhury and M. Razzaque, (2011) “Chlorinated pesticide residue status in tomato, potato and carrot,” Journal of Experimental Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2011.

S. A. Baig, N. N. A. Akhtera, M. Ashfaq, and M. R. Asi, (2009) “Determination of the organophosphorus pesticide in vegetables by high-performance liquid chromatography,” American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 513– 519, 2009.

EFSA, “+e 2015 European Union report on pesticide residues in food,” EFSA Journal, vol. 15, no. 4, 2017.

B. Lozowicka, E. Abzeitova, and A. Sagitov, (2015) “Studies of pesticide residues in tomatoes and cucumbers from Kazakhstan and the associated health risks,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 187, no. 10, p. 609, 2015.

S. Meijer, W. Ockenden, and A.Sweetman, (2003) “Global distribution and budget of PCBs and HCB in background surface soils: implications for sources and environmental processes,”

Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 37, no. 4,pp. 667–672, 2003.

R. Barra, P. Popp, R. Quiroz, C. Bauer, and H. Cid, (2005) “Persistent toxic substances in soils and waters along an altitudinal gradient in the Laja River Basin, Central Southern Chile,” Chemosphere, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 905–915, 2005.

K. Miglioranza, J. Moreno, and V. Moreno, (2003) “Trends in soil science: organochlorine pesticides in Argentinean soils,” Journal of Soils and Sediments, vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 264- 265,2003.

T. B. Weaver, H. Ghadiri, N. R. Hulugalle, and S. Harden, (2012) “Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, northwesternNew South Wales, Australia,” Chemosphere, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 336–343, 2012.

Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2010). The 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census. Government Press, Nairobi, Kenya.

Jolicoeur J. L. C (2000). Groundwater contamination potential of agriculture around Lake Naivasha: Comparison of five different unsaturated soil zones. MSc. Thesis International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) Enschede, The Netherlands.

UNEP (2010). UNEP chemicals POPs analysis training project. Four day practical training course in Amsterdam at the institute for environmental studies. VU University. March 8-13. 2010.

U.S. EPA. (1997). Standard Operating Procedures (Sops) for Residential Exposure Assessment drafts report Washington D.C, U.S Environmental protection Agency.

Otieno, Peter O., Joseph O. Lalah, Munir Virani, Isaac O. Jondiko, and Karl-Werner Schramm. "Soil and water contamination with carbofuran residues in agricultural farmlands in Kenya following the application of the technical formulation Furadan." Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B 45, no. 2 (2010): 137-144.

Lalah, J.O., Kaigwara, P.N., Getenga, Z.M., Mghenyi, J.M and Wandiga, S.O. (2001): The major environmental factors that influence rapid disappearance of pesticides from tropical soils in Kenya. Toxicological Environmental Chemistry 81, 167-197.

PCPB, 2018

Downloads

Published

2019-10-23

How to Cite

G., M. M., O., L. J., J., M., & W., W. V. (2019). Contamination from Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and other Pesticides in Agricultural Soils of Buuri, Imenti South and Imenti North Sub counties, Meru County Agroecosystem in Kenya. Journal of Agriculture, 3(1), 1–20. Retrieved from https://stratfordjournals.org/journals/index.php/journal-of-agriculture/article/view/362

Issue

Section

Articles