Teaching and Learning Barriers in Inclusive Education for Physically Impaired Students and Their Academic Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Rwanda a Case in Bugesera District


  • Hategekimana Jean Marie Vianney Mount Kenya University of Rwanda
  • Mukulira Olivier Mount Kenya University of Rwanda




Rwandan Education System gives equal chances to all students to access schooling regardless of their background including students with physical disability by empowering them with well-equipped skills, values, attitude and knowledge needed for every child without any discrimination. The main target of this research project was to examine the effect of learning and teaching barriers in inclusive education for physically impaired students on their academic performance in selected secondary schools of Bugesera District, Rwanda. The researcher adopted the descriptive survey design because the study sought to gain insight or perception into a phenomenon as a way of providing basic information in an area of study and the population of this study comprised of 647 respondents including 185 teachers, 15 head teachers, 432 students 15 deputy head teachers in charge of studies. The Researcher used simple random sampling technique to choose students, Stratified sampling technique was used to select teachers and the researcher used purposive sampling to select head teacher and deputy head teachers. The researcher used Yamane formula to determine the sample size population. Objective one was based on the identification of teaching and learning barriers therefore The findings revealed that the  teaching and learning barriers  were inadequate school infrastructures barriers, inappropriate  teaching and learning approaches used by the teachers, lack of parents engagement and teachers qualification. Objective two was based on the impact of teaching and learning barriers on physically impaired students ‘academic performance therefore results indicated that 95.9% of respondents highlighted that they affect students’ academic performance negatively. Therefore it was indicated with the Pearson correlation coefficient(r) of 0.941 to indicate that they were strongly positively and statistically significant means that the well-dressed teaching and learning barriers in inclusive education for physically impaired students enhance the students’ academic performance in secondary schools of Bugesera District, Rwanda. It was shown by the regression analysis model with R Square of 0.886 means that more strategies to prevent   teaching and learning barriers were appreciated to enhance, promote the Students’ academic performance in Rwanda. The Researcher recommended that government should continue advocating for the physically impaired students   for the betterment of their academic performance, Ministry of education should organize CPDs for the teachers on how to identify and support the SEN, and Government should promote job creation for the SEN students after completion of their education.

Keywords: Teaching and Learning Barriers, Inclusive Education, Impaired Students, Academic Performance, Physically Impaired Students.

Author Biographies

Hategekimana Jean Marie Vianney, Mount Kenya University of Rwanda

Postgraduate Student

Mukulira Olivier, Mount Kenya University of Rwanda

Senior Lecturer


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How to Cite

Vianney, H. J. M., & Olivier, M. (2022). Teaching and Learning Barriers in Inclusive Education for Physically Impaired Students and Their Academic Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Rwanda a Case in Bugesera District. Journal of Education, 5(1), 97–129. https://doi.org/10.53819/81018102t6008