Relationship between Charismatic Leadership and implementation of Change Management strategies in Private Secondary Schools in Nairobi County
Charisma is characterized by vision and a sense of mission, instilling pride and gaining respect and trust in a group. The purpose of this study is to examine and explore the relationship between charismatic leadership and the implementation of change management strategies in private secondary schools in Nairobi County. This study attempts to explicate and test the key role of charismatic leadership in bringing and implementing change in organizations. A test of the hypotheses was done using bivariate correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study targeted the principals, teachers and school administrators from 28 private secondary schools. The study used both probability and non-probability sampling procedures. The sample size of this study were five hundred and thirteen (n=513) respondents. The study collected data from teachers and school administrators using questionnaires, and from principals using interview guides. Questionnaires were distributed both physically and through emails. The research instruments were tested by two experts for content, trustworthiness and face validity, and another test was done for data reliability. Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis approaches following the research questions. For quantitative data, descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis; Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 26 was used to code data and conduct analysis. From the analysis, the study concluded that charismatic leadership has an effect on the implementation of change management strategies in the private secondary schools. The study recommended that top management need to encourage employees to share their opinion and be part of every creative process in the private secondary schools.
Key Words: Charismatic Leadership, Implementation of change management strategies, private secondary schools
Al Bakri, N., (2016). How to design and evaluate Research in education; 4 th Ed. New York USA; McGraw-Hill
Alcott, B., & Rose, P. (2016). Does private schooling narrow wealth inequalities in learning outcomes? Evidence from East Africa. Oxford Review of Education, 42, 495–510. https://doi.org /10.1080/03054985.2016.1215611
Andreasen A.R., and Kotlar P. (2003). Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Prentice-Hall, 6th edition.
Ansoff, I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. McGraw Hill, New York.
Ansoff, I. and McDonnell, E. (1990). Implanting Management. 2 Edition. Prentice Hall.
Anyien A., and Wachira L. (2015). Effect of Change Management Practices on Performance of Teachers Service Commission. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2015): 78.96. Impact Factor (2015): 6.391
Aosa, E. (1992). Empirical investigation of aspects of strategy formulation within large, private manufacturing companies in Kenya. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Strathcclyde (Scotland), 1992.
Appelbaum, S., St-Pierre, N. & Glavas, W., (2014). Strategic organizational change: the role of leadership, learning, motivation and productivity. Management Decision, 36/5, 289–301.
Arieu (2007). Strategic Management in Public and Private Organizations: Implications of Distinctive Contexts and Constraints. Academy of Management Review, 10, 276-286.
Armstrong, M. (2006).Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). USA.
Asiago, D. (2018). Administrative factors influencing quality of education in public secondary schools in Kitui, Kisii and Nairobi counties, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).
Aten’g, F.L.B.O. (2007). Challenges of Strategy Implementation at the Ministry of Finance in Kenya, MBA Project, University of Nairobi.
Avenell, K. (2015). Innovation – don’t be afraid. Australian Educational Leader, 36(4), 16-17
Ayodo, I. A. (2016). Effective change management in institutions of higher learning in Kenya. International Journal of Management Research and Reviews, 6(6), 792.
Bainbridge, C. (1996). Designing for change: A practical guide for business transformation. New York: John Wiley.
Beatty, K. (2010). The Three Strengths of a True Innovative Leader. Center for Creative Leadership.
Beerel., D., (2016). Organisational Change: Models for Successfully Implementing Change, Undergraduate honours theses, Utah, Utah State University, Digital Commons
Beatty, K., & Quinn, L. (2010). Strategic Command, Taking the Long View for Organizational Success. Leadership in Action.
Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper & Row.
Berley, K.C., & Laudon, J.P. (2006). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm. Prentice-Hall of India, New Delhi
Blohowiak, D. (2013). Question your way to the top! Productive Leader, 121, 1-3.
Burke, W. (2012). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Burnes, B. (2004). Managing change (4th ed). FT Prentice Hall.
Burnes, B. (2012). Managing change: A strategic approach to organizational dynamics (5th ed). FT Prentice Hall.
Caldwell, B.J. (2014). Feeling overwhelmed? It is time for serious innovation. Australian Educational Leader, 37(1), 14-17.
Capon, W.J., (2015) Organizational Behavior. Twelfth Edition New Delhi Tata Mc Graw Hill
Carnall, C. (2007). Managing change in organizations (5th ed). Pearson Education Canada.
Carton, A., Murphy, C., & Clark, Jonathan. (2014). A (Blurry) Vision of the Future: How Leader Rhetoric About Ultimate Goals Influences Performance. The Academy of Management Journal. 57. 1544. 10.5465/amj.2012.0101.
Chapman, A. (2006). Change management.
Canute S. Thompson (2019). Exploring teachers’ perspectives on effective organizational change strategies. Education planning Vol. 26, No. 2 ERIC
Cheema, S., Akram, A., & Javed, F. (2015). Employee Engagement, and Visionary Leadership: Impact on Customer and Employee Satisfaction. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly, 7 (2).
Chemengich, H. G. (2013). The influence of performance appraisal on employee productivity in organizations: A case study of selected WHO offices in East Africa. International Journal of Social Sciences and Entrepreneurship, 1 (11), 324-337.
Cherry, K. (2013). The Eight Major Theories of Leadership (2nd ed). The Everything Psychology Book.
Cheserek, G.J., & Mugalavai, V.K., (2012) Challenges and Reforms Facing Kenyan Education System in the 21st Century: Integrating the Principles of Vision 2030 and Constitution 2010. Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy Studies (JETERAPS) 3(4) 471-478. www.jeteraps.scholarlinkresearch.org,
Conger, J.A., Spreitzer, G.M. & Lawler, E.E. (1999). The leader's change handbook: An essential guide to setting direction and taking action. San Francisco.
Cooper, D. R & Schindler, P.S. (2008). Business research methods (10th ed). McGraw-Hill.
Cooper, D.R. and Schindler, P.S. (2008). Business Research Methods. Mc Graw – Hill, New Delhi.
Cowly, K. (2007). Measuring organizational effectiveness in institutions of higher education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 604-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392582
Cummings, T., & Worley, G. (2013). Organization Development and Change (9th ed.). New York, USA.
Damanpur, T. (2016). Management and the Dominance of Manager. New York: Routledge.
Damanpour, F., & Gopalakrishnan, S., (2016). The Dynamics of the Adoption of Product and Process Innovations in Organizations. Journal of Management Studies. 38. 45 - 65. 10.1111/1467-6486.00227.
Davies, J. (2014). Strategic leadership School Leadership & Management. University of Hull, UK.
Davy, J. A., Kinicki, A., Kilroy, J. and Scheck, C. (1988). After the merger: dealing with people's uncertainty. Training and Development Journal.
Day, C. & Gurr, D. (Eds.), (2014). Leading schools successfully. Stories from the field. London: Routledge Press.
Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta‐analytic test of their leadership. Sage Publications, Inc.
Dilworth, L. (1998). Action learning in a nutshell. Performance Improvement Quarterly.
Dunning, M.J. (2019). Professional superheroes: Are changes in higher education stretching hospitality management academics’ professionalism to the limit? J. Hosp. Leis. Sport Tour. Educ. 2019, 25, 100200.
Essmann, H., & Du Preez, N., (2013). An Innovation Capability Maturity Model Development and initial application.
Ettlie, E. & Reza, M. (2012). Organizational integration and process innovation. Academy of Management Journal, 35(4), 795-827.
Fiedler, F. E. (1967). Style of leadership and performance of coaching groups.14(2), 200-217.
Gates, R. M. (2016). A Passion for Leadership. New York: Knopf.
Gatsheni A.N. (2015). Factors affecting change management: a case study of Kenya Trade Network Agency (KENTRADE). Unpublished masters project. United States international university
Global Partnership for Education (GPE) (2021). Kenya investing education better future. https://www.globalpartnership.org/results/stories-of-change/kenya-investing-education-better-future
Glod, W., (2018). Transformational leadership style in the relationship between innovation and efficiency of healthcare units in Poland. Oeconomia Copernicana. 9. 731–753. 10.24136/oc.2018.036.
Goldberg, M. (1998a). The art of the question: A guide to short term question centered therapy. New York: Wiley.
Government of Kenya (2004) Guidelines on Terms and Conditions of Service for organisations’ Chief Executives Officers, Chairmen and Board members, Management and Unionisable Staff, Government Press, Nairobi, Kenya.
Government of Kenya (2009) Parliament of Kenya Act Cap 446 Laws of Kenya, Government Press, Nairobi, Kenya
Hamel, P. (2013) Understanding, Management and Modelling of Urban Hydrology and Its Consequences for Receiving Waters: A State of the Art. Advances in Water Resources, 51, 261-279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.09.001
Harigopal, K. (2014). Management of Organizational Change: Leveragin Research Journal of Business Management, 1(1), 1-40.
Hawthorne. M. (2014). The Purpose of Mission and Vision Statements in Strategic Planning, Demand Media.
Hiatt, J.M. & Creasy, T.J. (2003), Change Management: The people side of change. Prosci research, Colorado, USA
Hriyappa, B. (2008). Strategic Management: New age international (P) Ltd publishers Bangalore, Karnataka. http://www.changemanagementmodels.net/#sthash.UMFaWzD1.dpuf
Ichangi, M., (2016). Effects of Strategic Management Practices on Corporate Social Responsibility Performance of Parastatals in Kenya. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, 2(1), 106-128.
Imende, M. T., Maureen, O., Gogo, J., Thomas, M., & Olel, M. (2020). Influence of leadership styles on implementation of strategic plans in public secondary schools in kakamega county, kenya.
Intuit QuickBase. (2012). 10 Best Practices in Change Management.
Johnson G., Scholes K, and Whittington R. (2008). Exploring Corporate Strategy (8th ed). Prentice Hall, Harlow
Johnson, G. & Scholes, K. (2004). Exploring corporate strategy (7th ed). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.
John, G., & Scholes, K. (2001). Exploring Parliament of Kenya Strategy. Prentice Hall, Harlow.
Kaiser, L., & Halbert, J. (2009). Innovation and learning in the transformation of schools. London: Routledge.
Kan’goro, V.N. (2010). The State of Strategic Management Practices in Organizations in Kenya. MBA Project, University of Nairobi.
Karmarck, B. (2013). The wonderland of public administration reforms. London, UK: Routledge.
Kazmi S., Naarananoja M., & Wartsila J. (2016). Integrating strategic thinking and transformational leadership for NPD idea support process. 5th International Conference on Leadership, Technology, Innovation and Business Management. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 229 (2016) 387 – 397
Keruboh, M. (2013). Management of strategic change at the high court of Kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished thesis
Kimutai, S. K. (2019). Change management strategies and organizational effectiveness in public Universities in Kenya; a case of the university of Eldoret. Unpublished Thesis Kenyatta University.
Koskei, B.K., & Chepchumba, E., (2020) Teachers’ Competency as a Cornerstone on the Implementation of Competency-Based Curriculum in Kenya. A case of Lower Primary Schools in Nakuru County. https://www.ijern.com/journal/2020/February-2020/01.pdf
Kogut, Bruce & Zander, Udo. (1992). Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology. Organization Science. 3. 10.1287/orsc.3.3.383.
Korir, D.C. (2005). The impact of E – Commerce as a facilitating tool for business, the case of Tour operators in Nairobi. MBA Project, University of Nairobi.
Koskei, B.K., & Chepchumba, E. (2020). Teachers ’competency as a cornerstone on the implementation of competency-based curriculum in Kenya: a case of lower primary schools in Nakuru county. International Journal of Educational Research, 8 (2).
Kotler P., & Waterman, R.H. (2001). In search of Excellence: Lessons from America’s Best-Run companies. Harper and Row Publishers Inc. New York
Kotter, J. (1995). Leading change. New York, NY: Free Press. Kurland, D.J. (2000). Inference: The Process. Reading and Writing Ideas As Well As Words. http://www.criticalreading.com/inference_process.html
Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
Shoaib, A. (2011). Measuring performance through capital structure: Evidence from banking sector of Pakistan. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1871–1879.
Sisson, J. (2013). The 5 factors you need to successfully implement your strategy. The Business Journals.
Sorman-Nilsson, A. (2019). Thinque funky – Upgrade your thinking. Surry Hills: Creative Commons.
Stemler, S. (2001). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment.
Stevis, M. (2016). Central Bank of Kenya Puts Third Lender in Receivership - WSJ. http://www.wsj.com/articles/central-bank-of-kenya-puts-third-lenderin-receivership-1460041439
Stoll, L. (2011). Creative harmony: Song lines for changing learning landscapes. Australian Educational Leader, 33(3), 10-15.
Taylor-Bianco, A., & Schermerhorn, E. (2016), “Managerial coping with organizational change: the role of self-regulation and proactive behavior”, paper presented at Conference Proceedings from the Annual Conference, Irish Academy of Management, Trinity College, Dublin, September 4-6.
Tarawneh, M. (2006). A comparison of financial performance in the banking sector: Some Evidence from Omani Commercial Banks. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 3(3), 101–112.
Thomas, O. O. (2014). Change Management and its Effects on Organizational Performance of Nigerian Telecoms Industries: Empirical Insight from Airtel Nigeria. Lagos state University. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.686.2818&rep=rep1&type= pdf
Tichy, N. (1983), "The Essentials Of Strategic Change Management", Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 3 No. 4, pp. 55-67. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb038990
Tooley, J., & Longfield, D. (2016). Affordability of private schools: Exploration of a conundrum and towards a definition of ‘low-cost’. Oxford Review of Education, 42, 444–459.
Tonkin, A. (2016). Leading Schools for Innovation and Success: Five case studies of Australian principals creating innovative school cultures. Unpublished Thesis at the University of Melbourne.
Tsai, Y. (2011). Relationship between organizational culture, leadership behavior and job satisfaction. BMC Health Services Research, 11(1), 1.
Vakola, M., Tsaousis, I., & Nikolaou, I. (2004). The role of emotional intelligence and personality variables on attitudes toward organisational change. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 19(2), 88–110. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940410526082
Vink, P., Imada, A. S., & Zink, K. J. (2008). Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes. Applied Ergonomics, 39(4), 519–526.
Wachira, I., & Kamau, W. C. (2014). An Inquiry into Job Satisfaction Habits among Private Secondary School Teachers in Kenya. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 4 (1). DOI:10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n1p211
Walala, J. M. (2015). Effect of change management capacity on the delivery of quality education in public technical and vocational institutions in Kenya. Unpublished Thesis JKUAT.
Wang, C. L., & Ahmed, P. K. (2003). Organisational learning: a critical review. The Learning Organization, 10(1), 8–17.
Wanyama, M. N. (2013). Stakeholder involvement in change management at Kenya ports Authority. University of Nairobi. http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/handle/11295/63217