Stakeholder Participation and Performance of Water Projects in Kirinyaga County, Kenya


  • Mercy Wanjiku Mutu Kenyatta University
  • Lydia Gachengo Kenyatta University



Performance of a water project largely depend on how stakeholders are involved in the project. Stakeholder participation collaborate all inputs which are important in the project implementation especially providing solutions to various challenges based on their shared experiences. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of stakeholder participation on performance of water projects in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. The study targeted to evaluate role of involving stakeholder in identification, planning, monitoring and evaluation and implementation on performance of projects pertaining water on county of Kirinyaga. General system hypothesis was used together in conjunction with descriptive research design and cross-sectional in the process of data collection. The total target population were 29 water projects in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. The researcher purposively picked 3 respondents that include managers, assistant project managers and project supervisors giving a total purposive sample of 87 respondents. The questionnaire was used in collecting primary data. Questionnaire were distributed by drop and pick strategy. Analysis of data employed various forms statistics ranging from regression, correlation, standard deviation, mean, percentages and frequencies. The descriptive finding of the study indicated enjoining stakeholders on process of planning, identification, and execution during implementation and supervisory of monitoring and evaluation of projects have been moderately adopted in water projects. Inferential finding indicated that collaborating stakeholders’ initiatives in these following stage of planning, identification, monitoring and evaluation, planning and implementation significantly contributed to performance. The study recommend that proper feasibility study should involve all the stakeholders comprehensively. In addition, adequate sensitization is supposed to be undertaken to equip the community with information that is necessary. The project implementers should involve the community in tracking projects progress. There is need for project and community to work together during assessment so that elaborate assessment is undertaken and all gaps that might hamper project implementation are identified. The study recommends strengthening of public participation in all processes of a project. Public participation promotes accountability in the process thus improving efficiency.


Keywords: Stakeholder engagement, project planning, project implementation, KIRIWASCO

Author Biographies

Mercy Wanjiku Mutu, Kenyatta University

School of Business, Economics and Tourism

Lydia Gachengo, Kenyatta University

School of Business, Economics and Tourism


Budayan, C., Okudan, O., & Dikmen, I. (2020). Identification and prioritization of stage-level KPIs for BOT projects–evidence from Turkey. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 13(6), 1311-1337.

Cruz Villazón, C., Sastoque Pinilla, L., Otegi Olaso, J. R., Toledo Gandarias, N., & López de Lacalle, N. (2020). Identification of key performance indicators in project-based organizations through the lean approach. Sustainability, 12(15), 5977.

de Oliveira, G. F., & Rabechini Jr, R. (2019). Stakeholder management influence on trust in a project: A quantitative study. International journal of project management, 37(1), 131-144.

Di Maddaloni, F., & Davis, K. (2018). Project manager's perception of the local communities' stakeholder in megaprojects. An empirical investigation in the UK. International journal of project management, 36(3), 542-565.

Ika, L. A., & Pinto, J. K. (2022). The “re-meaning” of project success: Updating and recalibrating for a modern project management. International Journal of Project Management, 40(7), 835-848.

Isa, N. K. M., Alias, A., & Samad, Z. A. (2017). Sustainable Building through the Project Planning Process: The Case of Malaysia. The University of Malaya Press.

Klaus-Rosińska, A., & Iwko, J. (2021). Stakeholder Management—One of the Clues of Sustainable Project Management—As an Underestimated Factor of Project Success in Small Construction Companies. Sustainability, 13(17), 9877.

Kumar, P., Debele, S. E., Sahani, J., Rawat, N., Marti-Cardona, B., Alfieri, S. M., & Zieher, T. (2021). An overview of monitoring methods for assessing the performance of nature-based solutions against natural hazards. Earth-Science Reviews, 217, 103603.

Lamprou, A., & Vagiona, D. G. (2022). Identification and evaluation of success criteria and critical success factors in project success. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 23(2), 237-253.

Lim, C. & Mohamed, M. (2016). An exploratory study into recurring construction problems.

Magassouba, S. M., Tambi, A. M. B. A., Alkhlaifat, B., & Abdullah, A. A. (2019). Influence of stakeholders’ involvement on development project performance in Guinea. International journal of academic research in business and Social Sciences, 9(1), 1111-1120.

Matu, J., Kyalo, D., Mbugua, J., & Mulwa, A. (2020). Stakeholder Participation in Project Planning: Prerequisite to Effective Completion of Urban Road Transport Infrastructure Projects in Kenya. Journal of Building Construction and Planning Research, 8(1), 73-91.

Mbui, J. N. (2018). Influence of community participation on project performance: a case of Ruiri water projects, Meru county, Kenya (Masters dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Moreno-Monsalve, N., Delgado-Ortiz, M., Rueda-Varón, M., & Fajardo-Moreno, W. S. (2023). Sustainable development and value creation, an approach from the perspective of project management. Sustainability, 15(1), 472.

Narayan, D. (1998). ‘Participatory Rural Development’, in Agriculture and the Environment (eds.) E. Lutz. H. Binswanger, P. Hazell, and A. McCalla, Washington DC, the World Bank.

Narayanan, S., Kure, A. M., & Palaniappan, S. (2019). Study on time and cost overruns in mega infrastructure projects in India. Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series A, 100, 139-145.

Omar, S., & Moi, E. (2020). Determinants of public participation in implementation of development projects in Kenya: A case study of Wajir County government water projects. International Academic Journal of Law and Society, 1(2), 68-84.

Onyango, C. O. (2017). Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation system in the implementation of county government projects: a case of Kirinyaga county, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Sigalla, O. Z., Tumbo, M., & Joseph, J. (2021). Multi-stakeholder platform in water resources management: a critical analysis of stakeholders’ participation for sustainable water resources. Sustainability, 13(16), 9260.

UNICEF (2023). Billions of people will lack access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene in 2030 unless progress quadruples – warn WHO, UNICEF. Available on Accessed on 28/3/2023.

Wuni, I. Y., & Shen, G. Q. (2020). Critical success factors for modular integrated construction projects: a review. Building research & information, 48(7), 763-784.

Wyrwoll, P. R., Manero, A., Taylor, K. S., Rose, E., & Quentin Grafton, R. (2022). Measuring the gaps in drinking water quality and policy across regional and remote Australia. npj Clean Water, 5(1), 32.




How to Cite

Mutu, M. W., & Gachengo, L. (2023). Stakeholder Participation and Performance of Water Projects in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Project Management, 7(13), 22–44.