Influence of Employee Empowerment on Job Satisfaction of Commercial State Corporations in Kenya


  • Bellis Odinga Technical University of Mombasa
  • Dr. Kilungu Matata Technical University of Mombasa
  • Dr. Damaris Monari Technical University of Mombasa



The general objective of this study was to establish the influence of employee empowerment on job satisfaction in commercial state corporations within Kenya. The majority of Kenyan employees are absorbed by the public sector, and the Kenyan workforce is also increasingly seeking opportunities to work in the public sector. Due to this trend, it is of the essence to explore the degree to which employees' empowerment is influencing employee job satisfaction. The study's general objective was to establish the effects of employee empowerment on job satisfaction   of commercial state corporations within Kenya. Specifically, the study sought to assess the influence of job design; to establish the influence of transformational leadership; to establish the influence of employee involvement and to establish the influence of knowledge-sharing practices on employee job satisfaction of commercial state corporations within Kenya. The Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, Structural Empowerment Theory, and Social Exchange Theory guided the study. The study employed the descriptive research design in collecting data from the field. The target population of this study consisted of 55 commercial state corporations within Kenya. The sample size was 48 commercial state corporations. The main research instrument for data collection was a questionnaire. The applicability of the questionnaire to the proposed study was ascertained through a pilot study including 10 respondents from the study’s target population. A frequency analysis of this dataset revealed an 83.33% response rate, which is satisfactory. Conversely, the multiple regression analysis revealed a strong positive linkage between employee job satisfaction and employee empowerment. Importantly, only job design was found to have a significant influence on employee job satisfaction of Commercial State Corporations within Kenya. Its null hypothesis was rejected at a 0.95 confidence level (α<0.05). Besides the degree of influence that the sub-variables of employee empowerment had on employee job satisfaction varied. Job design had the highest level of influence (β =0.909), followed by Knowledge-sharing practices (β =0.385), Transformational leadership (β =0.149), and lastly, employee involvement (β =0.008). The study thus concluded that employee empowerment had a significant relationship with employee job satisfaction in commercial state corporations within Kenya. In particular, the study revealed that job design was the most dominant employee empowerment tool at commercial state corporations within Kenya. The study recommends that these organizations ought to increasingly consider employee empowerment policies that aim to boost knowledge-sharing practices, transformational leadership and employee involvement.

Keywords: Employee Empowerment, Employee Involvement, Job design, Employee Job Satisfaction, Knowledge Sharing Practices, Organizational Commitment, Organizational Performance, Transformational leadership.

Author Biographies

Bellis Odinga, Technical University of Mombasa

MBA student

Dr. Kilungu Matata , Technical University of Mombasa


Dr. Damaris Monari, Technical University of Mombasa



Abubakar, A. M., Elrehail, H., Alatailat, M. A., & Elçi, A. (2019). Knowledge management, decision-making style and organizational performance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 4(2), 104-114.

Al-Asoufi, B. B., & Akhorshaideh, A. H. O. (2017). The impact of employee empowerment on the success of organizational change: a study in privatized enterprises in Jordan. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 7(1), 87-101.

Al-Dmour, R., Yassine, O., and Masa’deh, R. (2018). A review of literature on the associations among employee empowerment, work engagement and employee performance. Modern Applied Science, 12(11), 313-329.

Ali, B. J., & Anwar, G. (2021). An empirical study of employees’ motivation and its influence job satisfaction. Ali, BJ, & Anwar, G.(2021). An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management, 5(2), 21-30.

Alshmemri, M., Shahwan-Akl, L., & Maude, P. (2017). Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Life Science Journal, 14(5), 12-16.

Amor, A. M., Xanthopoulou, D., Calvo, N., & Vázquez, J. P. A. (2021). Structural empowerment, psychological empowerment, and work engagement: A cross-country study. European Management Journal.

Asiamah, N., Mensah, H. K., & Oteng-Abayie, E. F. (2017). General, target, and accessible population: Demystifying the concepts for effective sampling. The Qualitative Report, 22(6), 1607.

Basa, B., Erari, A., & Setiani, M. Y. (2022). The Effect of Training, Career Development, Empowerment and Work Discipline on Job Satisfaction at Class I Airport Operator Unit of Mopah Merauke. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute (BIRCI-Journal): Humanities and Social Sciences, 5(1), 1832-1845.

Begzadeh, S., & Nedaei, M. (2017). The relationship between servant leadership with organizational trust and employee empowerment in the social security organization of Ardabil. International Journal of Management, Accounting & Economics, 4(3), 270-281.

Cheng, J. C., & Yi, O. (2018). Hotel employee job crafting, burnout, and satisfaction: The moderating role of perceived organizational support. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72, 78-85.

Chernyak-Hai, L., & Rabenu, E. (2018). The new era workplace relationships: Is social exchange theory still relevant? Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 11(3), 456-481.

Connolly, M., Jacobs, S., & Scott, K. (2018). Clinical leadership, structural empowerment and psychological empowerment of registered nurses working in an emergency department. Journal of nursing management, 26(7), 881-887.

Cropanzano, Russell, et al. "Social exchange theory: A critical review with theoretical remedies." Academy of Management Annals 11.1 (2017): 479-516.

Dahou, K., & Hacini, I. (2018). Successful employee empowerment: Major determinants in the Jordanian context. Eurasian Journal of Business and Economics, 11(21), 49-68.

Fernandes, A. A. R. (2017). Investigation of instrument validity: Investigate the consistency between criterion and unidimensional in instrument validity (case study in management research). International Journal of Law and Management.

Giere, R. N. (2017). Theories. A Companion to the Philosophy of Science, 515-524.

Gonzalez-Mulé, E., Carter, K. M., & Mount, M. K. (2017). Are smarter people happier? Meta-analyses of the relationships between general mental ability and job and life satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 99, 146-164.

Hirzel, A. K., Leyer, M., & Moormann, J. (2017). The role of employee empowerment in the implementation of continuous improvement. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.

Hussein, G. A., & Kanyanjua, D. (2020). Influence Of Servicescape On Employee Performance In Commercial Banks Within Kenya: The Moderating Role Of Employee Motivation: A Survey Of Mombasa County.

Iasiello, C., Crooks, A., & Wittman, S. (2020, October). The Human Resource Management Parameter Experimentation Tool. In International Conference on Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation (pp. 298-307). Springer, Cham.

Judge, T. A., Weiss, H. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Hulin, C. L. (2017). Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 356.

Kim, K., &Fernandez, C. (2017). "A Social Identity Perspective on the Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment", Journal of Social Psychology, 143 (6), 789- 791.

Mutiso, G.M (2017). Effect of Employee Empowerment on Job Satisfaction at Machakos Level Five Hospital within Kenya. Unpublished MBA Thesis, University of Nairobi

Njiraini, A., K’Aol, G. O., & Linge, T. (2018). Effect of idealized influence and inspirational motivation on job satisfaction among employees in commercial banks within Kenya.

Okoth, V. A., & Oluoch, M. F. (2019). Motivation and employee performance at avenue hospital kisumu county-kenya. Business Management Dynamics, 9(5), 20.

Ozsoy, E. (2019). An empirical test of Herzberg's two-factor motivation theory. Маркетинг і менеджмент інновацій, (1), 11-20.

Shah, S. M. M., Ali, R., Dahri, A. S., Brohi, N. A., Maher, Z. A., & Hameed, W. U. (2018). Determinants of job satisfaction among nurses: Evidence from South Asian perspective. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(5), 19-26.

Siedlecki, S. L. (2020). Understanding descriptive research designs and methods. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 34(1), 8-12.

Singh, M., & Sarkar, A. (2019). Role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between structural empowerment and innovative behavior. Management Research Review.

Singh, S. K., & Singh, A. P. (2019). Interplay of organizational justice, psychological empowerment, organizational citizenship behavior, and job satisfaction in the context of circular economy. Management Decision.

Stoermer, S., Hitotsuyanagi-Hansel, A., & Froese, F. J. (2019). Racial harassment and job satisfaction in South Africa: The moderating effects of career orientations and managerial rank. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(3), 385-404.

Torlak, N. G., & Kuzey, C. (2019). Leadership, job satisfaction and performance links in private education institutes of Pakistan. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

Wamuyu, M. (2020). Institutional Factors and Project Performance In Postal Corporation, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Kenyatta University).

Yin, N. (2018). The influencing outcomes of job engagement: an interpretation from the social exchange theory. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management.

Zhang, X., Ye, H., & Li, Y. (2018). Correlates of structural empowerment, psychological empowerment and emotional exhaustion among registered nurses: A meta-analysis. Applied Nursing Research, 42, 9




How to Cite

Odinga, B., Matata, K., & Monari, D. (2023). Influence of Employee Empowerment on Job Satisfaction of Commercial State Corporations in Kenya. Journal of Human Resource & Leadership, 7(1), 79–98.