Employee Job Promotion Practices and Employee Retention among Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya

Authors

  • Philisters Anyango Obunga Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
  • Dr.Susan Were Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
  • Dr. Yusuf Muchelule Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.53819/81018102t5312

Abstract

Employee retention is a vital issue for all organizations, as it affects their performance and growth. However, retaining a skilled and talented workforce is not easy, especially in the context of global competition and labour mobility. The study examined the relationship between employee job promotion practices and employee retention in non-governmental organizations in Kenya. An explanatory research design was used in the study. The research was conducted in Nairobi County. The target population was selected from the NGOs registered in Nairobi, which amounts to 1,191 organizations. The study's respondents were the top managers of each of these NGOs. A sample size of 20% was chosen, which equated to 238 individuals out of the total target population of 1,191. The study used simple random sampling technique to select one top manager from each of the 238 sampled NGOs. IBM SPSS version 24 was used to carry out the analysis of data. The correlation results revealed a positive and statistically significant association between employee job promotion practices and employee retention (r=0.567, p=0.000). The regression results revealed that employee job promotion practices is related to employee retention in non-governmental organizations in Kenya (=0.514, p=0.000). The R square was 0.322 (32.2%). This implied that employee job promotion practices could account for 32.2% of the variations in employee retention in Kenyan non-governmental organizations. The study concludes that employee job promotion practices such as vertical, horizontal, and dry promotion are essential for organizational growth and employee satisfaction. The study recommends a consistent approach to job promotions to improve employee retention in non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Kenya. A balanced mix of vertical, horizontal, and dry promotions, customized to individual and organizational needs, is necessary. Vertical promotions, being the most desired for their career advancement potential, should be supplemented by horizontal promotions that offer valuable cross-functional experience and skill diversification. Dry promotions, while less attractive, can be used wisely to acknowledge potential and responsibilities when budget constraints limit financial rewards.

Keywords: Employee job promotion practices, Employee Retention, Non-Governmental Organization, Kenya

Author Biographies

Philisters Anyango Obunga, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Post graduate student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr.Susan Were , Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Yusuf Muchelule, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

Lecturer, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya

References

Armstrong, M (2020). Armsrtong's essentials human resource management practice: A Guide to people management. London: Kogan Page Ltd.

Armstrong, M. (2019). Handbook of performance management: an evidence-based guide to delivering high performance. ( 5th ed.). Londond: Kogan Page

Armstrong, M. (2020). Human resource management practice. (14th Ed.) . New York: Kogan Page

Bunchapattanasakda, C., Wiriyakosol, S., & Ya-Anan, M (2020). Leadership roles on employees retaining practices in Non-Governmental Organizations: The case of Thailand.

Cavico, F.J.& Mujtaba, B.G. (2020). An assessment of businesses school in student retention accreditation and faculty scholarship challenges. Contemporary Issues in Education Research 3 (1) 107-118. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v3i1.167

Denham.L., & Shaddock, A. (2021). Recruitment and retention of rural allied health professionals in development disability service in NewsouthWales. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 12: 28-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1584.2004.00546.x

Garr, S. (2020). The state of employee recognition. Oakland, CA. Report of Bersin and Associates.

Gathungu, E.W.M., Ivravo, M.A., & Namusonge, G.S (2021). Effect of promotion on the organization commitment of the banking sector employees in Kenya. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 20 (10), 36-45

Koh, S. Y., Teh, B. H., San, O. T., & Abdullah, A. (2021). The Impacts of Physical, Psychological, and Environmental Factors on Employees Job Satisfaction among Public Accounting Professionals in Malaysia. IMC 2021 Proceedings, 1(1).

Kosteas, V.D (2019). Level changes and wage growth. International Journal of Manpower 30 (3) 269-284. https://doi.org/10.1108/01437720910956763

Kumar, S. (2020a). The impact of employee benefits as retention strategy in a concept dining restaurant chain in India. Unpublished Masters in Arts in Human Resource Management.

Kumar, S. (2020b). The impact of employee benefits as retention strategy in a concept dining restaurant chain in India. Unpublished Masters in Arts in Human Resource Management.

Lentawa, J., Gesimba, P., & Gichuhi, D. (2021). The effect of a company's innovation orientation culture on employee turnover among selected non-governmental organizations in Samburu, Kenya. International Journal of Research in Business and Social Science (2147-4478), 10(7), 150-155. https://doi.org/10.20525/ijrbs.v10i7.1388

Maritim, E. (2020). The perceived influence of reward management practices in the retention of generation Y employees at G4S Kenya Limited. Nairobi, Kenya.

Mita, M., Aarti, K & Ravneete, D. (2020). Study on employee retention and commitment. : International Journal of Advance Research in computer science and management studies. (2), 154-64

Molian,D. (2020). Entrepreneurship value creation: are business schools playing their full parts. Journal of Strategic Management Education (4) 233-252.

Munro, Z. (2021). Work-life balance, job satisfaction and turnover intention amongst information technology employees. Retrieved 17 June 2018, from http://uir.unisa.ac.za/handle/10500/20234

Muriithi, C. W. (2020). Factors That Determine Sustainability of Non Profit Organizations in Kenya (PhD Thesis). United States International University-Africa.

Muriuki, N.N., Munyua,C., Musundi,L & Rajwais,B.J. (2018) Relationship of recognition and staff performance in Kenya School of Government, Baringo campus. European Journal of Business and Management, 10 (20)

Mwema, N. W. (2022). Reward Management as A Precursor of Employee Retention in Christian Faith-Based Health Institutions in Kenya: Moderating Role Transformation Leadership. Human Resource and Leadership, 2(1), 25-37.

Ndinya, M. K., Nzulwa, J., Kwena, R. (2021). Factors Affecting Employee Retention in Non-Governmental Organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 4(2). https://doi.org/10.61426/sjbcm.v4i2.444

Neem, N. (2013) Impact of organizational culture and promotion policies in employee job satisfaction: The case of Pakistan. Journal of Business and Finance, 1 (2), 63-68.

Nelson, B. (2020). Secrets of successful employee recognition. Available online: http://www.nelson-motivation.com.

Njoroge, S.N., Nzulwa,J., & Kwena,R. (2021) Determinants of employee turnover in Non-Gorevnmental organizationsin Kenya: A case of John Hopkins. Strategic Journal of Business and Change Management. 4(2) 197-217. https://doi.org/10.61426/sjbcm.v4i2.431

Onyango, E.A (2020). Rewards and employee retention in Non-Government Conservations organizations in Nairobi, Kenya. (Master’s Thesis) KCA University.

Saleemi, N.A (2021). Personnel management simplified. Nairobi: Printwell Industries Ltd. (2020)

Samuel, O.S &Chipunza,C. (2019) . Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panacea. African Journal of business Management.3 (8) 410-415

Sitati, N. (2021). Effects of Reward Management Practices on Employee Retention in Hotels in Kenya. (PhD Thesis). Jomo Kenyatta University College of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi. https://doi.org/10.61426/sjbcm.v3i4.363

Sitati, N., Were,S., & Waititu, G.A. (2021). Effects of Employee job promotion practices on Employee Retention in Hotels in Kenya.. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management. 3(4), 956-972.

Sitati, N., Were,S. Waititu,P.G.S,.& Miringu,A. (2021). Effects of Remuneration on Employee Retention in Hotels in Kenya. African Journal of emerging Issues, 8 (1), 14-36.

Soe, K. K. N. (2022). Effect of Motivation on Employee's Retention of Non-Governmental Organizations in Health-Related Sector (Doctoral dissertation, MERAL Portal).

Solnet, D., Karlj, A. & Kandampully, J. (2020). Generation Y employees: an examination of work attitude differences. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship 17 (3) 36-54.

Tuwei, J.G, Matelung, K.N., Boit, S.R. & Tallam, K.Z (2013). Promotion opportunity on employee career change decision. The case of a selected learning institute in Kenya. International Journal of Business and Management, 8 (18) 53-62. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v8n18p53

USAID. (2020) NGO sustainability index for sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved 31 august2018fromhttps://www/usaid.gob/sites/default/files/documents/1860/

Van Dyk, J & Coetzee, M (2020) Retention factors in relation to organizational Commitment and international technology services. South Africa Journal of Human Resource, 1(2).

Welty, P.J., Burton, L.J, & Wells, J.E (2020). Examining the influence of transformational leadership, organizational commitment, job embeddness and job search behaviours on turnover intentions in the collegiate athletics. Leadership and Organization Development

Zubair, A., Bashir, M., Abrar, M., Baig, S. A., & Hassan, S. Y. (2021). Employee’s participation in decision making and manager’s encouragement of creativity: The mediating role of climate for creativity and change. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8(03), 306. https://doi.org/10.4236/jssm.2015.83033

Downloads

Published

2024-03-13

How to Cite

Obunga, P. A., Were , S., & Muchelule, Y. (2024). Employee Job Promotion Practices and Employee Retention among Non-Governmental Organizations in Kenya. Journal of Human Resource & Leadership, 8(2), 100–115. https://doi.org/10.53819/81018102t5312

Issue

Section

Articles