National Environmental Policy 2013 Adaptation Strategies for Sustainability of Samburu Pastoral Community in Samburu Central Sub-County Kenya
The purpose of this paper is to underscore the importance of environmental policy implementation for sustainable development among the Samburu pastoralist community of Kenya. The need to manage environment in order to reduce loss of biodiversity and the adverse effects of climate variability is the preoccupation of many governments. Adaptation strategies have been suggested by global institutions to protect the rural vulnerable communities, to adapt to climate variability, resourced based conflicts and environmental degradation. Kenyan National Government enacted The National Environmental Policy 2013 to address the management of the ecosystem and sustainable use of natural resources to foster sustainability of especially the vulnerable pastoral and nomadic communities like the Samburu. Existing literature on the implementation of the Government environmental policy 2013 suggests that little has been achieved to find out traditional knowledge of the Samburu people on adaptation strategies on the administration of environment and natural resources for their own sustainability. The study was guided by the following questions: What are the adaptation strategies to loss of bio-diversity among the Samburu pastoral community in Samburu Central Sub-County? How do the Samburu pastoral community manage pasture and water resources for their sustainability? What are the strategies the Samburu people use to enhance food security? The study employed hermeneutic phenomenology qualitative research design. Ecosystem theory was used to guide the study. Both primary and secondary data were used by the study. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionares, in-depth interviews, written field notes, Focused Group Discussions and recording of the interviews to collect invaluable information from 20 participants composed of Samburu elders (lpayani), morans (Lmuran), women (ntomonok) in Samburu Central Sub-County, Samburu County. Secondary data was collected by reviewing literature from google scholar, jystor, mendeley desktop, online libraries, National and County Government websites to access academic journal articles, books and reports. Purposive sampling technique was used to identify key informers from the Samburu community who participated and have valuable knowledge in the environmental administration and sustainable use of natural resources among the Samburu pastoral community. Ethical consideration was adhered to while conducting research at every stage. Data collected from the field was filtered into themes, coded, interpreted and reported as the main findings. The study found out that the success of the adaptation strategies advocated by the Environmental policy 2013 for sustainability of the Samburu pastoralist community of Kenya depends on how the National and County Government is able to incorporate traditional knowledge of the Samburu people on environmental administration and sustainable use of pasture and water. The fact that the Samburu people have been able to adopt to adverse of loss of bio-diversity, harsh climatic conditions that complicated the management of pasture and water, and diversification of livelihoods to address food insecurity points to the need to integrate traditional knowledge with scientific knowledge.
Keywords: Environmental management, National Environmental Policy 2013, Adaptation Strategies, Samburu pastoralist, Sustainability