The Effect of Employee Mobility on Skills Retention in Upstream Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria


  • Asikhia, O. U. Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
  • Makinde, G.O. Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
  • Akinlabi, H. B Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria
  • Ajani, W. B. Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria



This paper investigated effect of employee mobility on skills retention in upstream oil and gas companies in Nigeria. A review of pertinent conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature was done and a hypothesis was formulated. Three upstream oil and gas companies were surveyed using proportionate and stratified random sampling techniques. A total population of 9,437 regular and contract employees were investigated with a sample size of 807. The validity of the instrument was determined using content and construct validity while Cronbach Alpha was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. Multiple linear regression Analysis was used to analyse the hypothesis with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Science (V26.0). The study found that employee mobility components have positive and significant effect on skills retention of selected upstream oil and gas companies in Nigeria. Findings further revealed that employee buy-in has the highest contribution to skills retention in the selected upstream oil and gas companies in Nigeria. It concluded that employee mobility affects skills retention in selected upstream oil and gas companies in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommends that management of upstream oil and gas companies in Nigeria should keep update on the employee retention policies and strategies to retain talented and skilled employees.

Keywords: Employee Mobility, Knowledge Sharing, Hedge Relationships, Knowledge Transfer, Reward System, Skill Retention

Author Biographies

Asikhia, O. U., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences

Makinde, G.O., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences

Akinlabi, H. B, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences

Ajani, W. B., Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

Department of Business Administration and Marketing, School of Management Sciences


Abbas, J., Hussain, S. T., Lei, S., Jamal Haider, M., & Akram, T. (2017). Transactional leadership and organizational creativity: Examining the mediating role of knowledge sharing behavior. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1361663.

Abbasi, S. M., & Hollman, K. W. (2000). Turnover: The real bottom line. Public personnel management, 29(3), 333-342.

Adagbabiri, M. & Okolie, U. (2020). Human resource management practices and organizational performance: An empirical study of oil and gas industry in Nigeria. RUDN Journal of Public Administration, 7(1), 53-69.

Adim, C. V., & Mezeh, A. A. (2020). Health and safety training and employee performance in oil and gas companies in Rivers State, Nigeria. British International Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 7(8), 41–50.

Afif, S. H., Sanjay, K. S., & Matloub, H. (2015). Correlates of employee turnover intentions in oil and gas industry in the UAE. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 23(3), 493 – 504.

Agwu, M. O. (2013). Impact of fair reward system on employee’s job performance in Nigerian agip Oil Company limited Port-Harcourt. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, 3(1), 47-64.

Al-Kurdi, O., El-Haddadeh, R., & Eldabi, T. (2018). Knowledge sharing in higher education institutions: A systematic review. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 31(2), 226-246.

Armstrong, M. (2014). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan publisher

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2018). Multiple levels in job demands-resources theory: Implications for employee well-being and performance. Handbook of well-being.

Balogun, J., & Jenkins, M. (2003). Re-conceiving change management: A knowledge-based perspective. European Management Journal, 21(2), 247-257.

Bechina, A. A., & Bommen, T. (2006). Knowledge sharing practices: Analysis of a global Scandinavian consulting company. The electronic Journal of knowledge management, 4(2), 109-116.

Becker, G. S. (1993). Nobel lecture: The economic way of looking at behavior. Journal of political economy, 101(3), 385-409.

Becker, G. S. (1975). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (2nd ed.). New York: National Bureau of Economic Research/Columbia University Press.

Bock, G.W., Zmud, R.W., Kim, Y.G. & Lee, J.N (2005). Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate. MIS Quarterly, Information Technologies and Knowledge Management, 29, 87-111.

Bontis, N. (2002) National Intellectual Capital Index: The Benchmarking of Arab Countries.

Boxall, P. (1998). Achieving competitive advantage through human resource strategy: Towards a theory of industry dynamics. Human resource management review, 8(3), 265-288.

Campbell, B., Ganco, M., Franco, A. & Agarwal, R. (2012). Who leaves, where to and why worry? Employee mobility, entrepreneurship, and effects on source firm performance. Strategic Management Journal, 33, 65-87.

Castillo, V., Maffioli, A., Rojo, S. & Stucchi, R. (2013). The effect of innovation policy on SMEs' employment and wages in Argentina. Small Business Economics, 42, 10.1007/s11187-013-9485-9.

Chantal & Jayanti, (2021). retrieved 30/04/2022.

Chiboiwa, M.W., Samuel, M.O., & Chipunza, C. (2010). An examination of employee retention strategy in a private organisation in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Business Management, 4, 2103-2109.

Coff, R. W. (2002). Human capital, shared expertise, and the likelihood of impasse in corporate acquisitions. Journal of Management, 28, 107-128.

Danish, R. Q. &Usman, A. (2010). Impact of reward and recognition on job satisfaction and motivation: An empirical study from Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 159-167.

De Carolis, D. (2002). The Role of Social Capital and Organizational Knowledge in Enhancing Entrepreneurial Opportunities in High-Technology Environments. In Choo and Bontis (Eds.) The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge, New York: Oxford University Press, 699-709.

Decker, S. M. (2021). Workforce Diversity’s Relationship with Corporate Financial Performance Key Indicators (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Earl, M. (2001). Knowledge Management Strategies: Toward a Taxonomy. J. of Management Information Systems. 18(1), 215-242.

Eberly, M. B., Bluhm, D. J., Guarana, C., Avolio, B. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2017). Staying after the storm: How transformational leadership relates to follower turnover intentions in extreme contexts. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 72-85.

Edeh, O.F. (2019). Employee Training and Succession Planning of Selected Deposit Money Banks in Abia State, Nigeria. SEISENSE Journal of Management, 2(1), 1-10.

Emejulu, G. (2020). Employee rewards and its performance implication: A South Eastern Nigeria Experience. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 15(2), 8-15.

Falola, H. O., Adeniji, A. A., Adeyeye, J. O., Igbinnoba, E. E., & Atolagbe, T. O. (2020). Measuring institutional support strategies and faculty job effectiveness. Heliyon, 6(3), e03461.

Fayyaz, A.; Chaudhry, B.N., & Fiaz, M. (2021). Upholding knowledge sharing for organization innovation efficiency in Pakistan. Journal of Open Innovation Technology, Market, and Complexity 7(4).

Franco, A. M., & Filson, D. (2000). Knowledge diffusion through employee mobility (No. 2000-61). Claremont Colleges Working Papers in Economics.

Frappaolo, C. (2006). Knowledge Management. Capstone Publishing Ltd., Southern Gate Chichester, West Sussex.

Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge‐based theory of the firm. Strategic management journal, 17(S2), 109-122.

Hatch, N. W., Dyer, J. H. (2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 1155-1178.

Hom, P. W., Lee, T. W., Shaw, J. D., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2017). One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 530-545.

Hoskisson, R. E., Wan, W. P., Yiu, D., & Hitt, M. A. (1999). Theory and research in strategic management: Swings of a pendulum. Journal of management, 25(3), 417-456.

Huizing, A., & Bouman, W. (2002). Knowledge and learning markets and organizations. The strategic management of intellectual capital and organizational knowledge, 185-204.

Iqbal, M. J., Rasli, A., Heng, L. H., Ali, M. B. B., Hassan, I., & Jolaee, A. (2011). Academic staff knowledge sharing intentions and university innovation capability. African Journal of Business Management, 5(27), 11051-11059.

Kannan, G. and Akhilesh, B.K. (2002) Human capital knowledge value added: A case study in
info-tech. Journal of intellectual capital, 3(2), 167-179.

Kanin-Lovers, J., & Porter, A. (1991). Skill-based pay as a management system. Journal of Compensation and Benefits, 7(1), 50-52.

Khandekar, A., & Sharma, A. (2003). Organizational learning in Indian organizations: a strategic HRM perspective. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.

Kogut, B., & Zander, U. (1992). Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization science, 3(3), 383-397.

Lin, H. F. (2007). Knowledge sharing and firm innovation capability: an empirical study. International Journal of manpower.

Mawdsley, J. K., & Somaya, D. (2016). Employee Mobility and Organizational Outcomes: An Integrative Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda. Journal of Management, 42(1), 85–113.

Megha, B. G. (2020). An Organizational Study on Mahindra and Mahindra Limited (Doctoral dissertation, CMR Institute of Technology. Ba

Milkovich, G. T., Newman, J. M., & Gerhart, B. (2011). Compensation, 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Mpuon, J., Eyo, A., & Kajang, J. (2021). Supply chain planning and business performance of Nigeria oil and gas industry, 15, 297 - 314.

Mugove, L.A., & Mukanzi, C.M. (2018). Determinants of employee turnover in the selected Kenyan public universities. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 5(4), 119-126.

Nguyen, T., & Burgess, S. (2014). A case analysis of ICT for knowledge transfer in small businesses in Vietnam. International Journal of Information Management, 34(3), 416-421.

NNPC (2021). Directorate of Planning, Research and Statistics. Retrieved from

Noor, A. H. M. H., Muhd, N. M. N. & Norhayati, H. (2018). Knowledge transfer practice in organizational. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(8), 750-761.

Odekina, A. F. (2022). Management succession planning and corporate survival of commercial banks in Kogi State. International Journal of Public Administration and Management Research, 7(5), 33-45.

Oduntan, O. M. (2020). Employee Retention Rate: The Impact of Human Resource Planning (Case Study of Shell Petroleum Development, Nigeria) (Doctoral dissertation, Dublin, National College of Ireland).

OECD, (2013). Supporting Investment in Knowledge Capital, Growth and Innovation. OECD, Paris.

Ogunkoya, О. Ogundele, Е., Adetayo, А. (2021). Knowledge transfer and business performance: A study of manufacturing organizations in Ogun State, the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Izvestiya Journal of Varna University of Economics, 65 (1), 86 - 101.

Okosi, L.I. (2020). Effect of reward system on the performance of sachet waters companies in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Innovative Social Sciences & Humanities Research 8(4),20-31.

Ouedraogo, N., & Ouakouak, M.L. (2018). Impacts of personal trust, communication, and affective commitment on change success. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 31, 676-696.

Palmer, B. (2021, August 2). Since pandemic, ‗employees have become a company’s most valuable asset ‘.

Paola, G., Federico, M., Alessandra, S. & Laura, T. (2019). The strategic orientation of universities in knowledge transfer activities. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 138(3), 261–278.

Pfeffer, J. (1994), Competitive Advantage through People Unleashing the Power of the Workforce. Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

Ranjbarfard, M., Aghdasi, M., López-Sáez, P., & Emilio Navas López, J. (2014). The barriers of knowledge generation, storage, distribution and application that impede learning in gas and petroleum companies. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(3), 494–522.

Rayat, M., & Kelidbari, H. R. (2017). The effects of business intelligence on the effectiveness of the organization (Case Study: Airline Companies in Iran). Review of European Studies, 9(3), 176.

Rebolledo, C., & Nollet, J. (2011). Learning from suppliers in the aerospace industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), 328-337.

Robyn, P. J., Shroff, Z., Zang, O. R., Kingue, S., Djienouassi, S., Kouontchou, C., & Sorgho, G. (2015). Addressing health workforce distribution concerns: a discrete choice experiment to develop rural retention strategies in Cameroon. International journal of health policy and management, 4(3), 169.

Romer, P.M. P. (1990) Endogenous Technological Change, The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), Part 2: The Problem of Development: A Conference of the Institute for the Study of Free Enterprise Systems. (Oct., 1990), S71-S102.

Roos, J., Venzin, M., & Von Krogh, G. (1998). Future research into knowledge management. Knowing in firms: Understanding, managing and measuring knowledge, 26-66.

Rosen, H. S. (1999). Public Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Santos, I., Barriga, G., Jugend, D. & Cauchick-Miguel, P. (2019). Organizational factors influencing project success: an assessment in the automotive industry. Produção. 29(2), 10.1590/0103-6513.20180108.

Savita, G. A. U. R. (2018). Bengáli Tűz: A Spectrum of intercultural transfer. Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Philologica, 10(3), 51-65.

Shethna, J. (2020). Why are employees the most valuable intangible assets?

Schultz, T.W. (1993). The economic importance of human capital in modernization. Education Economics, 1, 13-19.

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. The American economic review, 51(1), 1-17.

Siwale, J., Chrine, C., Hapompwe, C. K. & Silavwe, D.C. (2020); Impact of reward system on organisational performance: A case study of Brentwood Suppliers Limited in Lusaka, Zambia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), 10(07), 2250-3153.

Somaya, D., Williamson, I., & Lorinkova, N. (2008). Gone but not lost: The different performance impacts of employee mobility between co-operators versus competitors. The Academy of Management Journal, 51(5), 936 -953.

Sumbal, M. S., Tsui, Y. H. E., See-to, E., & Barendrecht, A. (2017). Knowledge retention and aging workforce in the oil and gas industry: a multi perspective study. Journal of Knowledge Management, 21(4), 907-924.

Sveiby, K. (2001), "A knowledge‐based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation", Journal of Intellectual Capital, 2(4), 344-358.

Thangjam, T. (2021, October 1). Top 30 employee retention strategies for the ― “New” Work World!

Tuomi, I. (2000). Data is more than knowledge: implications of the reversed knowledge hierarchy for knowledge management and organizational memory.

van den Hooff, B. & de Ridder, J.A. (2004), "Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing", Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 117-130.

Vito, B., Mekuri-Ndimele, J. A., & Wahua, I, V. (2019). Servant leadership and organizational success of deposit money banks of Rivers State, Nigeria. The Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 6(2), 2444 – 2457.

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: A review and directions for future research. Human resource management review, 20(2), 115-131.

Wright, M., Tartari, V., Huang, K. G., Di Lorenzo, F. & Bercovitz, J. (2018). Knowledge worker mobility in context: pushing the boundaries of theory and methods. Jour. of Manage. Stud., 55, 1–26.




How to Cite

Asikhia, O. U., Makinde, G., Akinlabi, H. B., & Ajani, W. B. (2022). The Effect of Employee Mobility on Skills Retention in Upstream Oil and Gas Companies in Nigeria. Journal of Strategic Management, 6(4), 26–41.