The Interplay between Human Resource Strategies and Strategic Alignment: A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Empirical Literature in the United States


  • Dave Wayne Boudreau Cornell University
  • John S. Ulrich Cornell University
  • Edward P. Buhler Rutgers University



This research undertook a comprehensive review of both conceptual and empirical literature on the interaction between Human Resource (HR) strategies and strategic alignment within U.S. organizations. The study critically examined various HR strategies, including recruitment, training and development, compensation and benefits, and employee relations, and assessed their role in enhancing strategic alignment. The study further analyzed how HR strategies and strategic alignment intersect to influence organizational performance. A systematic literature review approach was employed to scrutinize a plethora of published materials dating from the 1990s to the present day, with a focus on U.S. based research. The research examined the relevance of different HR strategies in aligning employees' goals with the strategic objectives of organizations. The study also delved into the impacts of these HR strategies on employee performance, engagement, and retention. The findings revealed that effective HR strategies are pivotal in fostering strategic alignment within organizations, driving improved organizational performance and productivity. In particular, training and development, and compensation and benefits, emerged as significant HR strategies that directly influence strategic alignment. The research further demonstrated a positive correlation between strategic alignment and enhanced organizational performance, validating the crucial role of HR in strategic management. The study concludes that there is a symbiotic relationship between HR strategies and strategic alignment, suggesting that the integration of HR strategies into the broader organizational strategy can greatly contribute to overall performance and competitiveness. These findings reinforce the necessity for HR professionals to continually evolve their strategies to foster strategic alignment, thus ensuring that HR is a strategic partner in organizational success. The research additionally pinpointed areas warranting further empirical research to solidify the understanding of this interaction, especially in the face of evolving workplace trends.

Keywords: Human Resource Strategies, Strategic Alignment, Organizational Performance, Employee Engagement, Training and Development, Compensation and Benefits.

Author Biographies

Dave Wayne Boudreau, Cornell University

The ILR School of Strategic HR Management

John S. Ulrich , Cornell University

The ILR School of Strategic HR Management

Edward P. Buhler, Rutgers University

The School of Management and Labor Relations


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How to Cite

Boudreau, D. W., Ulrich , J. S., & Buhler, E. P. (2023). The Interplay between Human Resource Strategies and Strategic Alignment: A Comprehensive Review of Conceptual and Empirical Literature in the United States. Journal of Strategic Management, 7(5), 1–10.