Aligning Strategic Intelligence and Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Review


  • Damiete Onyema Lawrence Port Harcourt, Nigeria
  • Melanie J. Ashleigh University of Southampton
  • Christiana Onuabuchi Lucky-Kormene Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • Ibiere Tende Rivers State Universal Basic Education Board
  • Bobby Elechi Vintage Farms and Products Ltd
  • Anthony Wakwe Lawrence Community Inter-Relations and Reconciliation Initiative



The purpose of this paper is to present a framework for scholars carrying out reviews of research that meet international standards for publication. Conceptualizing the factors that determine graduate employability and how it relates to strategic intelligence. A set of propositions are presented using three themes namely: strategic intelligence, career counselling and skill gap. This is primarily a conceptual paper focusing on the approach of performing systematic reviews. Nevertheless, the paper builds on a database of previously done research in graduate employability, career development, and strategic intelligence. The paper uses narrative examples from empirical reviews to further explain the parts of the conceptual framework drawing from theoretical frameworks of human capital theory and adaptive theory. The study also alludes to specific findings from previous research to demonstrate general trends in how the framework's main aspects have been used in exemplary reviews. The contribution of this paper is to emphasize the importance of students developing strategic intelligence in order to be employable. It is intended that this conceptual framework would give helpful methodological input in enhancing long-standing efforts in graduate employability, and career development discipline to progress knowledge in a more methodical and coherent manner. The paper reveals that foresight and environmental intelligence are proxies for strategic intelligence and when applied to career counselling, they will result in new capacity outcomes that are more suitable to the energy requirements and other sustainable green technologies via university career counsel partnerships with government and industry. It also revealed that, when a student can predict the direction of their desired industry, he or she can develop the necessary skill sets to be employable after graduation. Finally, it found out that the alignment of strategic intelligence and graduate employability helps in recruitment effectiveness and improves efficiency in the entire career ecosystem processes. Apart from undergraduates, the paper proposes a practical framework for universities, graduates, and industry to help produce employable personnel and entrepreneurs, as well as a set of requirements for maintaining employability in a career ecosystem. The paper contributes to theory by integrating strategic intelligence and graduate employability literature by recognizing shared characteristics of fast and continuous learning, as well as foresight. Thus this paper helps to bridge the gaps in respective research agendas. As a result, this research is unique in that it contributes to the advancement of human capital theory, graduate employability, and strategic intelligence.

Keywords: Graduate Employability, Strategic Intelligence, Career Counselling, Skill Gap, Education for Sustainable Development

Author Biographies

Damiete Onyema Lawrence, Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Business Developer Cinfores Limited

Melanie J. Ashleigh, University of Southampton

Associate Professor

Christiana Onuabuchi Lucky-Kormene, Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa Polytechnic, Bori, Rivers State, Nigeria


Bobby Elechi , Vintage Farms and Products Ltd

General Manager

Anthony Wakwe Lawrence, Community Inter-Relations and Reconciliation Initiative



Abelha, M., Fernandes, S., Mesquita, D., Seabra, F. and Ferreira-Oliveira, A.T., 2020. Graduate employability and competence development in higher education—A systematic literature review using PRISMA. Sustainability, 12(15), p.5900.

Akkermans, J., Seibert, S.E. and Mol, S.T., 2018. Tales of the unexpected: Integrating career shocks in the contemporary careers literature. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 44(1), pp.1-10.

Akkermans, J., Richardson, J. and Kraimer, M.L., 2020. The Covid-19 crisis as a career shock: Implications for careers and vocational behavior. Journal of vocational behavior, 119, p.103434.

Akkermans, J., Collings, D.G., da Motta Veiga, S.P., Post, C. and Seibert, S., 2021. Toward a broader understanding of career shocks: Exploring interdisciplinary connections with research on job search, human resource management, entrepreneurship, and diversity. Journal of vocational behavior, 126, p.103563.

Albrecht, K., 2006. Social intelligence: The new science of success. New York, NY; Pfeiffer

Aliu, J. and Aigbavboa, C.O., 2021. Structural determinants of graduate employability: impact of university and industry collaborations. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 19(5), pp.1080-1100.

Al Hinai, M.R., Bhuiyan, A.B. and Husin, N.A., 2020. Theoretical review on the graduate attributes and the readiness for employability among engineering graduates in the higher education institutes (HEIs) in Oman. Indian Journal of Finance and Banking, 4(2), pp.130-139.

Ayodele, T.O., Oladokun, T.T. and Kajimo-Shakantu, K., 2020. Employability skills of real estate graduates in Nigeria: a skill gap analysis. Journal of Facilities Management, 18(3), pp.297-323.

Barati, N., Dariush, B., Dastyar, F. and Barati, M., 2020. Environmental Intelligence A Holistic Approach to the Human-Environment Relationship. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development, 13(30), pp.213-225.

Baruch, Y., 2015. Organizational and labor markets as career ecosystem. In Handbook of research on sustainable careers (pp. 364-380). Edward Elgar Publishing.

Baruch, Y. and Rousseau, D.M., 2019. Integrating psychological contracts and ecosystems in career studies and management. Academy of Management Annals, 13(1), pp.84-111.

Becker, G.S., 1962. Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis. Journal of political economy, 70(5, Part 2), pp.9-49.

Behle, H., 2020. Students’ and graduates’ employability. A framework to classify and measure employability gain. Policy reviews in higher education, 4(1), pp.105-130.

Bensoussan, B.E. and Fleisher, C.S., 2012. Analysis without paralysis: 12 tools to make better strategic decisions. FT Press. Australia--a case study. Journal of Education and Work, 15(1), pp.31-51.

Bhatnagar, N., 2021. Employability and skill gap among MBA graduates in India: a literature review. Industrial and commercial training, 53(1), pp.92-104.

Buheji, M. and Buheji, A., 2020. Planning competency in the new Normal–employability competency in post-COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 10(2), pp.237-251

Blokker, R., Akkermans, J., Tims, M., Jansen, P. and Khapova, S., 2019. Building a sustainable start: The role of career competencies, career success, and career shocks in young professionals' employability. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 112, pp.172-184.

Boamah, F.A., Zhang, J., Wen, D., Sherani, M., Hayat, A. and Horbanenko, O., 2022. Enablers of knowledge management: practical research-based in the construction industry. International Journal of Innovation Science, 14(1), pp.121-137.

Boden, R. and Nedeva, M., 2010. Employing discourse: universities and graduate ‘employability’. Journal of Education Policy, 25(1), pp.37-54.

Bolton-King, R.S., 2022. Student Counselling to enhance graduates’ employability potential. Science & Justice, 62(6), pp.785-794.

Bonesso, S., Gerli, F. and Cortellazzo, L., 2019. Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies Awareness and Development for Students' Employability. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 160, pp.77-89.

Brandtner, P. and Mates, M., 2021, July. Artificial Intelligence in Strategic Foresight–Current Practices and Future Application Potentials: Current Practices and Future Application Potentials. In The 2021 12th International Conference on E-business, Management and Economics (pp. 75-81).

Bryant, M.M. and Turner, J.S., 2019. From thermodynamics to creativity: McHarg’s ecological planning theory and its implications for resilience planning and adaptive design. Socio-Ecological Practice Research, 1, pp.325-337.

Bryson, J. and George, B., 2020. Strategic management in public administration. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Buheji, M. and Buheji, A., 2020. Planning competency in the new Normal–employability competency in post-COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 10(2), pp.237-251Bhatnagar, N., 2021. Employability and skill gap among MBA graduates in India: a literature review. Industrial and commercial training, 53(1), pp.92-104.

Cebrian, G., Palau, R. and Mogas, J., 2020. The smart classroom as a means to the development of ESD methodologies. Sustainability, 12(7), p.3010.

Chan, S.J. and Lin, L.W., 2015. Massification of higher education in Taiwan: Shifting pressure from admission to employment. Higher education policy, 28, pp.17-33.

Chand, P.K., Kumar, A.S. and Mittal, A., 2019. Emotional intelligence and its relationship to employability skills and employer satisfaction with fresh engineering graduates. International Journal for Quality Research, 13(3), p.735.

Chukuigwe, N., 2022. Strategic Intelligence and Organizational Performance in Telecommunication Firms in Rivers State. BW Academic Journal, pp.8-8.

Clark-Ambrosini, J.L., Ashleigh, M.J., Higgs, M. and Baruch, Y., 2022. Quid pro quo? The future for graduate development programmes through the lens of talent management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, pp.1-24.

Charfeddine, L. and Kahia, M., 2019. Impact of renewable energy consumption and financial development on CO2 emissions and economic growth in the MENA region: a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) analysis. Renewable energy, 139, pp.198-213.

Colli, M., Berger, U., Bockholt, M., Madsen, O., Møller, C. and Wæhrens, B.V., 2019. A maturity assessment approach for conceiving context-specific roadmaps in the Industry 4.0 era. Annual Reviews in Control, 48, pp.165-177.

Crews, C., 2020. Foresight and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Research-Technology Management, 63(4), pp.55-57.

Dardiri, A., 2016. Soft Skill and Entrepreneurial Career Guidance Model for Enhancing Technical Vocational Education and Training’s Graduates Competitiveness. Innovation of Vocational Technology Education, 12(1), pp.1-7.

De Vos, A. and Van der Heijden, B.I. eds., 2015. Handbook of research on sustainable careers. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Donald, W.E., Ashleigh, M.J. and Baruch, Y., 2018. Students’ perceptions of education and employability: Facilitating career transition from higher education into the labor market. Career development international, 23(5), pp.513-540.

Donald, W.E., Baruch, Y. and Ashleigh, M., 2019. The undergraduate self-perception of employability: Human capital, careers advice, and career ownership. Studies in Higher Education, 44(4), pp.599-614.

Donald, W.E., Baruch, Y. and Ashleigh, M.J., 2020. Striving for sustainable graduate careers: Conceptualization via career ecosystems and the new psychological contract. Career Development International, 25(2), pp.90-110.

Donald, W., Ashleigh, M. & Baruch, Y. (2022). The university-to-work transition: Responses of universities and organizations to the COVID-19 pandemic. Personnel Review, 51(9), 2201-2221. doi: 10.1108/PR-03-2021-0170

Dwesini, N.F., 2019. Causes and prevention of high employee turnover within the hospitality industry: A literature review. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(3), pp.1-15.

Ead, H., Fadallah, S., Fahmy, H., Rezk, M., Piccinetti, L. and Sakr, M., 2021. Awareness of foresight through education in Egypt: a case study from Egyptian university. Insights into Regional Development, 3(4), pp.10-20.

Ezenwa, O., Stella, A. and Agu, A.O., 2018. Effect of competitive intelligence on competitive advantage in Innoson technical and industry limited, Enugu state, Nigeria. International Journal of Business, Economics & Management (IJBEM), 1(1), pp.28-39.

Fee, A. and Gray, S.J., 2022. Perceived organisational support and performance: The case of expatriate development volunteers in complex multi-stakeholder employment relationships. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 33(5), pp.965-1004.

Fernández, I. and Castillo-Eguskitza, N., 2021. A holistic approach to integrate and evaluate sustainable development in higher education. The case study of the University of the Basque Country. Sustainability, 13(1), p.392.

Fidan, T. and Balcı, A., 2017. Managing schools as complex adaptive systems: A strategic perspective. International electronic journal of elementary education, 10(1), pp.11-26.

Flannelly, K.J. and Flannelly, K.J., 2017. 19th Century Evolutionary Thought Before Charles Darwin. Religious Beliefs, Evolutionary Psychiatry, and Mental Health in America: Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory, pp.29-37.

Fleisher, C.S. and Bensoussan, B.E., 2015. Business and competitive analysis: effective application of new and classic methods. FT press.

Garg, N. and Gera, S., 2020. Gratitude and leadership in higher education institutions: exploring the mediating role of social intelligence among teachers. Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 12(5), pp.915-926.

Garg, N., Jain, A. and Punia, B.K., 2021. Gratitude, social intelligence, and leadership among university teachers: mediation and moderation analysis. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 29(2), pp.368-388.

George, B., Walker, R.M. and Monster, J., 2019. Does strategic planning improve organizational performance? A meta‐analysis. Public Administration Review, 79(6), pp.810-819.

Giancaspro, M.L. and Manuti, A., 2021. Learning to be employable through volunteering: A qualitative study on the development of employability capital of young people. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, p.574232.

Gilbert, S., Mullen, J., Kelloway, E.K., Dimoff, J., Teed, M. and McPhee, T., 2021. The CARE model of employee bereavement support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 26(5), p.405

Goleman, D., 2006. The socially intelligent. Educational leadership, 64(1), pp.76-81.

Goodman, S. and Tredway, G., 2016. Antecedents of perceived graduate employability: A study of student volunteers in a community-based organisation. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 42(1), pp.1-10.

Haarhaus, T. and Liening, A., 2020. Building dynamic capabilities to cope with environmental uncertainty: The role of strategic foresight. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 155, p.120033.

He, L.Y., Li, H., Bi, J.W., Yang, J.J. and Zhou, Q., 2022. The impact of public health emergencies on hotel demand-Estimation from a new foresight perspective on the COVID-19. Annals of Tourism Research, 94, p.103402.

Helfat, C.E. and Peteraf, M.A., 2015. Managerial cognitive capabilities and the microfoundations of dynamic capabilities. Strategic management journal, 36(6), pp.831-850.

Herbert, I.P., Rothwell, A.T., Glover, J.L. and Lambert, S.A., 2020. Graduate employability, employment prospects and work-readiness in the changing field of professional work. The International Journal of Management Education, 18(2), p.100378.

Hernandez-de-Menendez, M., Morales-Menendez, R., Escobar, C.A. and McGovern, M., 2020. Competencies for industry 4.0. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM), 14, pp.1511-1524.

Herzig, A., Lorini, E. and Pearce, D., 2019. Social intelligence. AI & SOCIETY, 34, pp.689-689.

Hoang, N.T. and Huy, D.T.N., 2021. Determining factors for educating students for choosing to work for foreign units: Absence of self-efficacy. JETT, 12(2), pp.11-19.

Hobfoll, S.E., 1988. The ecology of stress. Taylor & Francis.

Hobfoll, S.E., 1989. Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress. American psychologist, 44(3), p.513.

Hobfoll, S.E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J.P. and Westman, M., 2018. Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual review of organizational psychology and organizational behavior, 5, pp.103-128.

Holston-Okae, B.L. and Mushi, R.J., 2018. Employee turnover in the hospitality industry using Herzberg’s two-factor motivation-hygiene theory. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(1), pp.218-248..

Idrees, S.M., Alam, M.A. and Agarwal, P., 2019. A prediction approach for stock market volatility based on time series data. IEEE Access, 7, pp.17287-17298.

Iranmanesh, M., Kumar, K.M., Foroughi, B., Mavi, R.K. and Min, N.H., 2021. The impacts of organizational structure on operational performance through innovation capability: innovative culture as moderator. Review of Managerial Science, 15, pp.1885-1911.

Islam, M.S. and Zhang, Y., 2018. The potential of strategic environmental assessment to reduce disaster risks through climate change adaptation in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 11(1), pp.137-153.

Jackson, D. and Bridgstock, R., 2021. What actually works to enhance graduate employability? The relative value of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular learning and paid work. Higher Education, 81(4), pp.723-739.

Jagannathan, S., Ra, S. and Maclean, R., 2019. Dominant recent trends impacting on jobs and labor markets-An Overview. International Journal of Training Research, 17(sup1), pp.1-11.

Järvenpää, A.M., Kunttu, I. and Mäntyneva, M., 2020. Using foresight to shape future expectations in circular economy SMEs. Technology Innovation Management Review, 10(7).

Keikha, A. and Hadadi, E., 2016. Investigating effects of Strategic Intelligence of Managers on the performance of employees: Case Study Private Banks in city of Zahedan. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 7(3), pp.263-279.

Kohler, K., 2021. Strategic Foresight: Knowledge, Tools, and Methods for the Future. CSS Risk and Resilience Reports.

Lawrence, D.O, Aaron A, Pope O, Subai A., 2020. Corporate foresight and organisational sustainability of oil servicing companies in the Niger delta region, south-south, Nigeria. Journal of Strategic Management, 5(2):12-27.

Lawrence, D.O. and Poi, G., 2021. Environmental Intelligence and Innovation Capabilities of Communication Companies in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, 9(5), pp.34-46.

Lawrence, A.W, Ogbanga, M., Lawrence, D. O., and Lawrence, B. A., 2023. Awareness Assessment Study and Ways to Deppen the Knowledge and Practise of Sustainable Development Goals. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development,

Limani, Y., Hajrizi, E., Stapleton, L. and Retkoceri, M., 2019. Digital transformation readiness in higher education institutions (HEI): The case of Kosovo. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 52(25), pp.52-57.

Iivari, N., Sharma, S. and Ventä-Olkkonen, L., 2020. Digital transformation of everyday life–How COVID-19 pandemic transformed the basic education of the young generation and why information management research should care?. International journal of information management, 55, p.102183.

Looy, B.V., Debackere, K. and Andries, P., 2003. Policies to stimulate regional innovation capabilities via university–industry collaboration: An analysis and an assessment. R&D Management, 33(2), pp.209-229.

Majid, S. and Khoo, C., 2009. Environment Intelligence: An Innovative Information Service. Singapore Journal of Library & Information Management, 38.

Mallick, U.K. and Biswas, M.H.A., 2020. Mathematical approach with optimal control: reduction of unemployment problem in Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Nonlinear Dynamics, 9(2), pp.231-246.

McLaughlin, P.J., 2022. Durkheim’s Failed Darwinian Encounter: Missed Opportunities on the Path to a Post-exemptionalist Environmental Sociology. Sociological Perspectives, p.07311214221121164.

McGinn, K.L. and Oh, E., 2017. Gender, social class, and women's employment. Current opinion in Psychology, 18, pp.84-88.

Mgaiwa, S.J., 2021. Fostering graduate employability: Rethinking Tanzania’s university practices. SAGE Open, 11(2), p.21582440211006709.

Mok, K.H. and Jiang, J., 2018. Massification of higher education and challenges for graduate employment and social mobility: East Asian experiences and sociological reflections. International Journal of Educational Development, 63, pp.44-51.

Nabulsi, N., McNally, B. and Khoury, G., 2021. Improving graduateness: Addressing the gap between employer needs and graduate employability in Palestine. Education+ Training, 63(6), pp.947-963.

Nazir, M.A., 2022. The Impact and Factors Affecting Information and Communication Technology Adoption in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: A Perspective from Pakistan Muhammad Arsalan Nazir*, Raza Saleem Khan. J Organ Stud Innovat, 9(1), pp.20-46.

Nghia, T.L.H., 2019. Building soft skills for employability: Challenges and practices in Vietnam.

Okay-Somerville, Belgin, and Dora Scholarios. "Position, possession or process? Understanding objective and subjective employability during university-to-work transitions." Studies in higher education 42, no. 7 (2017): 1275-1291.

Oki, S., 2019. ‘Innovation’as an adaptation of ‘progress’: revisiting the epistemological and historical contexts of these terms. Innovation Beyond Technology: Science for Society and Interdisciplinary Approaches, pp.47-62.

Okolie, U.C., Nwajiuba, C.A., Binuomote, M.O., Ehiobuche, C., Igu, N.C.N. and Ajoke, O.S., 2020. Career training with Counselling programs in higher education: facilitating career development and employability of graduates. Education+ Training.

Oliver, B., 2015. Redefining graduate employability and work-integrated learning: Proposals for effective higher education in disrupted economies. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 6(1), pp.56-65.

Papoutsi, C., Drigas, A. and Skianis, C., 2019. Emotional intelligence as an important asset for HR in organizations: Attitudes and working variables. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 12(2), p.21.

Parolin, Z. and Wimer, C., 2020. Forecasting estimates of poverty during the COVID-19 crisis. Poverty and Social Policy Brief, 4(8), pp.1-18.

Rothwell, A. and Arnold, J., 2007. Self‐perceived employability: development and validation of a scale. Personnel review.

Portes, J. and Springford, J., 2023. The Impact of the Post-Brexit Migration System on the UK Labour Market (No. 15883). Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

Rajan, S. and Pandita, A., 2019, March. Employability and Hiring Trends of Engineering Job Aspirants in UAE. In 2019 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Ram, K., 2021. A Unified Adaptive Theory of Global Business Culture. Culture in Global Businesses: Addressing National and Organizational Challenges, pp.63-75.

Rohrbeck, R. and Kum, M.E., 2018. Corporate foresight and its impact on firm performance: A longitudinal analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 129, pp.105-116.

Römgens, I., Scoupe, R. and Beausaert, S., 2020. Unraveling the concept of employability, bringing together research on employability in higher education and the workplace. Studies in Higher Education, 45(12), pp.2588-2603.

Salomone, P.R. and Slaney, R.B., 1981. The influence of chance and contingency factors on the vocational choice process of nonprofessional workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 19(1), pp.25-35.

Sancoko, R., Setiawan, M. and Troena, E.A., 2019. The influence of organizational culture and spiritual intelligence on employee performance through emotional intelligence. MEC-J (Management and Economics Journal), 3(1), pp.67-80

Seibert, S.E., Kraimer, M.L., Holtom, B.C. and Pierotti, A.J., 2013. Even the best laid plans sometimes go askew: career self-management processes, career shocks, and the decision to pursue graduate education. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98(1), p.169.

Shahriar, M.S., Islam, K.M., Zayed, N.M., HASAN, K. and Raisa, T.S., 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on Bangladesh's economy: A focus on graduate employability. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(3), pp.1395-1403.

Shanmugam, K., Zainal, N.K. and Gnanasekaren, C., 2019, May. Technology foresight in the virtual learning environment in malaysia. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 1228, No. 1, p. 012068). IOP Publishing.

Sharma, H., 2020. The nexus between future of work and future of higher education: redefining employability and equity. Medienimpulse, 58(1), pp.21-Seiten.

Sheppard, J., 2019. Collaboration as a means to support inclusion. BU Journal of Graduate Studies in Education, 11(2), pp.16-20.

Sicherman, N. and Galor, O., 1990. A theory of career mobility. Journal of political economy, 98(1), pp.169-192.

Sinnaiah, T., Adam, S. and Mahadi, B., 2023. A strategic management process: the role of decision-making style and organisational performance. Journal of Work-Applied Management.

Small, L., Shacklock, K. and Marchant, T., 2018. Employability: a contemporary review for higher education stakeholders. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 70(1), pp.148-166.

Steurer, M., van der Vaart, L. and Rothmann, S., 2022. Mapping managerial expectations of graduate employability attributes: A scoping review. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 48, p.1990.

Supramaniam, S. and Singaravelloo, K., 2021. Impact of emotional intelligence on organisational performance: An analysis in the Malaysian Public Administration. Administrative Sciences, 11(3), p.76.

Tarique, I., 2021. Talent management: An introduction. In The Routledge companion to talent management (pp. 1-6). Routledge.

Teubner, R.A. and Stockhinger, J., 2020. Literature review: Understanding information systems strategy in the digital age. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 29(4), p.101642.

Thomson, T., 2019. What happens when politics and career dreams collide? Considering the impact of Brexit on graduate career aspirations. Employability via Higher Education: Sustainability as Scholarship, pp.227-235.

Thomas, K., Hardy, R.D., Lazrus, H., Mendez, M., Orlove, B., Rivera‐Collazo, I., Roberts, J.T., Rockman, M., Warner, B.P. and Winthrop, R., 2019. Explaining differential vulnerability to climate change: A social science review. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 10(2), p.e565.

Towers, N., Santoso, A.S., Sulkowski, N. and Jameson, J., 2020. Entrepreneurial capacity-building in HEIs for embedding entrepreneurship and enterprise creation–a tripartite approach. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 48(8), pp.881-899.

Turner, J.R., Morris, M. and Atamenwan, I., 2019. A theoretical literature review on adaptive structuration theory as its relevance to human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 21(3), pp.289-302.

Tilak, J.B., 2020. Dilemmas in reforming higher education in India. Higher Education for the Future, 7(1), pp.54-66.

Tomlinson, M., 2012. Graduate employability: A review of conceptual and empirical themes. Higher education policy, 25, pp.407-431.

Vahdat, S., 2022. The role of IT-based technologies on the management of human resources in the COVID-19 era. Kybernetes, 51(6), pp.2065-2088.

Varga, J., 2020. Occupational Mobility Among Youth with Different Educational Attainment Levels.

Walsh, T., 2018. Expert and non-expert opinion about technological unemployment. International Journal of Automation and Computing, 15(5), pp.637-642.

Wang, Y., Kung, L. and Byrd, T.A., 2018. Big data analytics: Understanding its capabilities and potential benefits for healthcare organizations. Technological forecasting and social change, 126, pp.3-13.

Wordsworth, R. and Nilakant, V., 2021. Unexpected change: Career transitions following a significant extra-organizational shock. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 127, p.103555.

Xiaohao, D., Hongxia, Y. and Qiumei, Y., 2016. Research on returns on education at all levels and changes for urban residents in China: 2002–2009. Trends in Chinese Education, pp.35-49.

Zaheer, M.I., Ajayi, S.O., Zulu, S.L., Oyegoke, A. and Kazemi, H., 2021. Understanding the key competencies of market-ready building surveying graduates from employers’ perspectives. Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, 19(1), pp.291-314.

Zamora-Polo, F. and Sánchez-Martín, J., 2019. Teaching for a better world. Sustainability and sustainable development goals in the construction of a change-maker university. Sustainability, 11(15), p.4224.




How to Cite

Lawrence, D. O., Ashleigh, M. J., Lucky-Kormene, C. O., Tende, I., Elechi , B., & Lawrence, A. W. (2023). Aligning Strategic Intelligence and Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Review. Journal of Strategic Management, 7(5), 61–80.