Relationship Between Integrative Leadership and Performance of Public Boarding Secondary Schools in Frontier Counties: The Mediating Effect of Employee Motivation


  • Mohamed Abdinoor Dahir The Management University of Africa
  • Dr. Domeniter Naomi Kathula The Management University of Africa, Kenya
  • Dr. Paul Machoka The Management University of Africa, Kenya



An integrative leadership framework from an educational perspective is vital in understanding the efforts that are put in by school leaders to support overall school performance. Integrated leadership is also critical in the management and the development of partnerships aimed at increasing the quality of school performance. An integrative kind of leadership motivates members of the school community to maximize their overall performance. Integrative leadership combines the qualities of servant leadership, authentic leadership, and value-based leadership while simultaneously addressing their weaknesses. This paper sought to ascertain the mediating effect of employee motivation on the relationship between integrative leadership and the performance of public boarding secondary schools in selected Counties under the FCDC Kenya. This paper critiqued empirical studies linking the relationship between integrative leadership and performance and the mediating role of employee motivation. This study adopted a pragmatism research philosophy. This study also triangulated data using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The target population included all public boarding secondary schools from four FCDC Counties namely Lamu, Isiolo, Samburu, and Wajir. The study also targeted student leaders, teachers, principals, stakeholders (Board of Management representatives, County, and Teachers Service Commissions (TSC) Directors). The sample included 300 student leaders from 16 public boarding secondary schools in four FCDC Counties. A sample of 90 teachers, 16 principals, 16 Board of Management (BOM) stakeholders, 4 county directors of education and 4 TSC county directors; and 4 representatives of development partners also formed part of the sampling units. Therefore, the total sample size was four hundred and forty (N=440). Questionnaires were used to gather information from the teachers and students while interview guides were used to gather information from the school principals, BOM representatives, and County Directors of education. Interview guides were open-ended and detailed. Data was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis approaches based on the research objectives. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize quantitative data and the results were presented in frequencies and percentages, while inferential statistics were used to test the study hypothesis. Qualitative data on the other hand was summarized and reported in themes. The study revealed that integrative leadership has a significant relationship with the performance of public boarding secondary schools in selected Counties under FCDC Kenya. Further, the study findings indicated a partial mediating effect on the mediating role of employee motivation on the relationship between integrative leadership and school performance.

Keywords: Integrative Leadership, Employee Motivation, Performance of Public Boarding Secondary Schools, Frontier Counties Development Council (FCDC)

Author Biographies

Mohamed Abdinoor Dahir, The Management University of Africa

Management and Leadership, School of Management and Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Kenya

Dr. Domeniter Naomi Kathula, The Management University of Africa, Kenya

Senior Lecturer, Management and Leadership, School of Management and Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Kenya

Dr. Paul Machoka, The Management University of Africa, Kenya

Senior Lecturer, Management and Leadership, School of Management and Leadership, The Management University of Africa, Kenya


Aguinis, H., & Kraiger, K. (2009). Benefits of training and development for individuals and teams, organizations, and society. Annual review of psychology, 60, 451-474.

Ali, B. J., & Anwar, G. (2021). Employee Turnover Intention and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science, 7(6), 22-30.

Alkhateri, A. S., Khalifa, G. S., Abuelhassan, A. E., Isaac, O., & Alrajawi, I. (2019). Antecedents for Job Satisfaction in Ras-Al-Khaimah, Schools: Evidence from UAE. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 14(15), 5097-5110.

Al-Safran, E., Brown, D., & Wiseman, A. (2014). The Effect of Principal's Leadership Style on School Environment and Outcome. Research in Higher Education Journal, 22.and Marginalisation in Kenya. Retrieved from

Ansoff, H. I., & McDonnell, E. (1990). Implanting Strategic Management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Arslan, A., & Staub, S. (2013). Theory X and theory Y type leadership behaviour and its impact on organizational performance: Small business owners in the Şishane Lighting and Chandelier District. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 75, 102-111.

Ayub, M.J. (2018). Factors contributing to low completion rates of girls in primary schools in Mogotio Sub County, Baringo County, Kenya. International Journal of Scientific Research and Innovative Technology, 5(1), 92 – 106.

Babbie E.R. (2004). The Practice of Social Research . 13th ed. Belmont, CA : Wadsworth

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership: Good, better, best. Organizational dynamics, 13(3), 26-40.

Bukhuni, E. C., Namusonge, G. S., & Makokha, E. N. (2019). The effect of motivation practices on employee performance in public secondary schools in Kenya. International Journal of Social Sciences and Information Technology, 4(8), 56-63.

Burnes, B. (1996). Managing Change: A Strategic Approach to Organizational Dynamics. London: Pitman.

Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper Torchback.

Checkland, P. B. 1999. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Cheruiyot, B. B., & Kalei, A. (2020). Influence of Reward Strategies on Employee Performance in Public University Campuses in Kericho County, Kenya. Asian Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting, 16(3), 1-15.

Comighud, S. M. T., & Arevalo, M. J. (2021). Motivation in relation to teachers’ performance. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 10 (4),641-653.

Davidescu, A. A., Apostu, S. A., Paul, A., & Casuneanu, I. (2020). Work flexibility, job satisfaction, and job performance among Romanian employees-Implications for sustainable human resource management. Sustainability, 12(15), 6086.

Day, C., Gu, Q., & Sammons, P. (2016). The impact of leadership on student outcomes: How successful school leaders use transformational and instructional strategies to make a difference. Educational administration quarterly, 52(2), 221-258.

Day, C., Sammons, P., & Gorgen, K. (2020). Successful School Leadership. Education development trust. Education Development Trust. Highbridge House: Reading Berkshire, United Kingdom.

De Oliveira, T. M. R. D., & De Lacerda, C. (2015). Understanding leadership effectiveness in organizational settings: An integrative approach (Doctoral dissertation, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal)).

Di Leo, G., & Sardanelli, F. (2020). Statistical significance: p value, 0.05 threshold, and applications to radiomics-reasons for a conservative approach. European radiology experimental, 4(1), 1-8.

Doh, J. P., & Quigley, N. R. (2014). Responsible leadership and stakeholder management: Influence pathways and organizational outcomes. Academy of Management Perspectives, 28(3), 255-274.

Elbaz, A. M., & Haddoud, M. Y. (2017). The role of wisdom leadership in increasing job performance: Evidence from the Egyptian tourism sector. Tourism management, 63, 66-76.

Esdras, R., & Andala, H. O. (2021). The Influence of Motivation on Teacher Performance in Boarding Secondary Schools of the Western Province of Rwanda, Stratford Peer Reviewed Journals and Book Publishing Journal of Education, 4(1),1-18.

Forson, J. A., & Opoku, R. A. (2014). Government’s restructuring pays policy and job satisfaction: The case of teachers in the Ga West municipal assembly of Ghana. International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning, 3(1), 79-99.

Graves, L. M., & Sarkis, J. (2018). The role of employees' leadership perceptions, values, and motivation in employees' provenvironmental behaviors. Journal of cleaner production, 196, 576-587.

Gürbüz, S., Şahin, F., & Köksal, O. (2014). Revisiting of Theory X and Y: A multilevel analysis of the effects of leaders’ managerial assumptions on followers’ attitudes. Management Decision, 52 (10), 1888-1906.

Harison, K., Mark, B., & Imwati, A. (2017). Spatial variability of malnutrition and predictions based on climate change and other causal factors: A case study of North Rift ASAL counties of Kenya. Journal of Earth Science & Climatic Change, 8(10).

Hitt, D. H., & Tucker, P. D. (2016). Systematic Review of Key Leader Practices Found to Influence Student Achievement: A Unified Framework. Review of Educational Research, 86 (2): 531–569.

Ingersoll, R. M., Sirinides, P., & Dougherty, P. (2018). Leadership Matters: Teachers' Roles in School Decision Making and School Performance. American Educator, 42(1), 13.

Juneja, P. (2015). Scope of Human Resource Management. Management study guide.

Kanana, M. R. E., & Omondi, B. O. W. A. (2020). Influence of stakeholder’s participation in primary school management on academic performance: the case of Uringu Division, Meru County, Kenya. International Journal of Arts and Education, 2(3), 57-70.

Kapur, R. (2022). The significance of reward management in organizations. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 14(2), 83-92.

Kasuni, J. S. (2016). Investigating Relationship Between Motivational Strategies and Employee Performance in Selected Secondary Schools in Kenya: A Case of Makueni County. International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce, 1 (9), 79-96.

Kiruja, E.K., & Mukuru, E. (2013). Effect of motivation on employee performance in public middle level Technical Training Institutions in Kenya. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 2(4), 73-82.

Klein, G., & Zwilling, M. (2022). Leader-member exchange theory and its relationship to teachers' intrapreneurial behaviour, teachers' work engagement and entrepreneurial orientation. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 32(2), 199-221.

Koednok, S. (2013). Effective of transformational leadership in human capital management for creating a sustainable ASEAN Community (AEC). Journal of Advanced Management Science, 1(1), 129-132.

Leithwood, K., Harris, A., & Hopkins, D. (2020). Seven strong claims about successful school leadership revisited. School leadership & management, 40(1), 5-22.

Lopez, N. L., & Irene, E. A. (2017). Motivation and commitment to teaching among pre-service teachers of a State University in Samar, Philippines. Journal of Academic Research, 2(3), 18-29.

Maak, T., Pless, N. M., & Voegtlin, C. (2016). Business statesman or shareholder advocate? CEO responsible leadership styles and the micro‐foundations of political CSR. Journal of Management Studies, 53(3), 463-493.

Mabert, V. A., Soni, A., & Venkataramanan, M. A. (2003). Enterprise resource planning: Managing the implementation process. European journal of operational research, 146(2), 302-314.

Mazaki, K. E. (2017). Staff Welfare and Teachers ‘Performance in Public Primary Schools in Bugisu Sub-Region in Uganda. Published PhD Thesis, UTAMU-Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.

Mele, C., Pels, J., Polese, F. (2010). A brief review of systems theories and their managerial applications. Service Science, 2 (1/2), 126-135.

Miller, P. W. (2018). The nature of school leadership. In The Nature of School Leadership (pp. 165-185). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Mokhtar, S. S. M., Yusoff, R. Z., & Ahmad, A. (2014). Key elements of market orientation on Malaysian SMEs performance. International Journal of Business and Society, 15(1), 49.

Morgan, L. N. W. (2015). The influence of school leadership practices on classroom management, school environment, and academic underperformance (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University).

Mpaata, K. A. (2019). The Leadership Role of Secondary School Head Teachers in Delivering Integrative Quality Education in Uganda. International Journal Educational Leadership &Management, 7(2), 201-210.

Mugenda, O. M., & Mugenda, A. G. (2003). Research methods. Quantitative and qualitative approaches. Nairobi: ACTS Press.

Mutwiri, R. E. K. (2015). Influence of stakeholder’s participation in primary school management on academic performance: the case of Uringu Division, Meru County, Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nairobi).

Nkirote, V., & Thinguri, R. (2020). Influence of teachers’ motivation on learning outcomes among pre-primary learners in Maara Sub County, Kenya. African Journal of Education and Practice, 6(2), 33-43.

Nweneka, C. M. (2019). Motivation and Teachers’ Job Performance in Public Senior Secondary Schools in Rivers State. International Journal of Innovative Social & Science Education Research, 7(3):1-17

Ochieng, P. A. (2020). Children Rights to Education using ADDIE Model Approach in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL), Kenyan Perspective. African Journal of Education, Science and Technology, 5(4), 290-297.

Okoth, A. A., & Florah, O. M. (2019). Influence of performance appraisal on motivation of public secondary school teachers in Gem-Sub County, Kenya. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 9(4), 39-49.

Omar, A. M., & Kavale, S. (2016). Effect of leadership style on school performance of the secondary schools in Wadajir district, Mogadishu, Somalia. Journal of Applied Management Science, 2(5), 52-70.

Ordu, U. B. A. (2021). The Role of Teaching and Learning Aids/Methods in a Changing World. Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. BCES Conference Books, 19, 210-216.

Otungu, M. G. (2020). Factors Affecting Implementation of Intergovernmental Programs in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University).

Para-González, L., Jiménez-Jiménez, D., & Martínez-Lorente, A. R. (2018). Exploring the mediating effects between transformational leadership and organizational performance. Employee Relations, 40(2), 412-432.

Peiró, J. M., Kozusznik, M. W., Rodríguez-Molina, I., & Tordera, N. (2019). The happy-productive worker model and beyond: Patterns of wellbeing and performance at work. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), 479.

Qadach, M., Schechter, C., & Da’as, R. A. (2020). Instructional leadership and teachers' intent to leave: The mediating role of collective teacher efficacy and shared vision. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 48(4), 617-634.

Romascanu, M.C., Gheorghe, G., & Stanescu, D.F. (2017). An Exploratory Study of Full Range Leadership Model and Nonverbal Sensitivity”. Logos Universality Mentality Education Novelty, Section: Social Sciences, 6(1), 83-94.

Ruben, B. D., & Gigliotti, R. A. (2021). Explaining incongruities between leadership theory and practice: integrating theories of resonance, communication and systems. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 42(6), 942-957.

Situma, R. N., & Iravo, M. A. (2015). Motivational factors affecting employees’ performance in public secondary schools in Bungoma north sub county, Kenya. International Academic Journal of Human Resource and Business Administration, 1(5), 140-161.

Stiftung, F. E. (2012). Regional Disparities and Marginalization in Kenya. Nairobi: Elite PrePress.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics ( 5th ed.). London, England: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Tahir, K. H. K., & Iraqi, K. M. (2018). Employee performance and retention: A comparative analysis of Theory X, Y and Maslow’s theory. Journal of Management Sciences, 5(1), 100-110.

Tan, C. Y. (2018). Examining school leadership effects on student achievement: the role of contextual challenges and constraints. Cambridge journal of education, 48(1), 21-45.

Tumi, N. S., Hasan, A. N., & Khalid, J. (2022). Impact of compensation, job enrichment and enlargement, and training on employee motivation. Business Perspectives and Research, 10(1), 121-139.

Wekesa, V., & Kitainge, K. (2022). Instructional Material Provision and Performance of Upgraded National Schools in Western Kenya. East African Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 5(1), 30-39.

Wenzel, A. K., Krause, T. A., & Vogel, D. (2019). Making performance pay work: The impact of transparency, participation, and fairness on controlling perception and intrinsic motivation. Review of public personnel administration, 39(2), 232-255.

Wills G. (2019) School Leadership and Management: Identifying Linkages with Learning and Structural Inequalities. In: Spaull N., Jansen J. (eds) South African Schooling: The Enigma of Inequality. Policy Implications of Research in Education, 10(2). 101-111 Springer, Cham.

World Bank (2018). World Bank Document Report. Obtained from

Youn, S., Yang, M. G. M., & Hong, P. (2012). Integrative leadership for effective supply chain implementation: An empirical study of Korean firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 139(1), 237-246.

Yuniawan, A., & Putri, V. W. (2017). Developing an alternative model for the relationship among social capital, adaptive-integrative leadership, competitive advantage, and organizational effectiveness. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8(11), 52-60.

Zhang, D., Sun, X., Liu, Y., Zhou, S., & Zhang, H. (2018). The effects of integrative leadership on the enterprise synergy innovation performance in a supply chain cooperative network. Sustainability, 10(7), 2342.




How to Cite

Dahir, M. A., Kathula, D. N., & Machoka, P. (2023). Relationship Between Integrative Leadership and Performance of Public Boarding Secondary Schools in Frontier Counties: The Mediating Effect of Employee Motivation. Journal of Human Resource & Leadership, 7(5), 45–73.